The Graces

Fr. 3 

      . . . .]. τα[. . . . . . . . . . . . . .]. . κῶς ἄν[ις αὐλῶν

           ῥέζειν καὶ στεφέων εὔαδε τῷ Παρίῳ 

 

Fr. 4 

      καὶ νήσων ἐπέτεινε βαρὺν ζυγὸν αὐχένι Μίνως

 

Fr. 5 

                          τὸ μὲν θύος ἤρχετο βάλλειν

 

Fr. 6 

      οἱ δ' ἕνεκ' Εὐρυνόμη Τιτηνιὰς εἶπαν ἔτικτεν

 

Fr. 7 

                      ]ες ἀνείμον[ες] ὡς ἀπὸ κόλπου

10       μητρὸς Ἐλειθυίης ἤλθετε βουλομένης,

      ἐν δὲ Πάρῳ κάλλη τε καὶ αἰόλα βεύδε' ἔχουσαι

           . . . . .] ἀπ' ὀστλίγγων δ' αἰὲν ἄλειφα ῥέει,  

      ἔλλατε νῦν, ἐλέγοισι δ' ἐνιψήσασθε λιπώσας

           χεῖρας ἐμοῖς, ἵνα μοι πουλὺ μένωσιν ἔτος.

Fr. 3 Harder (= 3 Pf., = 5 Mass.)
  1 PSI 1219, 21, [image], Trismegistos 59399
  2 Heph. 52, 15 sqq. Consbruch

Fr. 4 Harder (= 4 Pf. = 6 Mass.) Cyrill. Alex. contra Iulian.

Fr. 5 Harder (= 5 Pf., = 7 Mass.) Σ T Il. 9, 219d

Fr. 6 Harder (= 6 Pf., = 8 Mass. )  Σ T Il. 18, 398-399b

Fr. 7 Harder (= 7.1-18 Pf., = 9.18 Mass.)
  1-17 P.Oxy. 2167 fr. 2, col I 1-14 [image],
   Trismegistos 59397

  7-16 PSI 1217A, fr. 1, 1-10 [image] Trismegistos 59397
  5-11 P. Berol. 17057 verso [image], Trismegitsos 59422
  9-10 Σ T Il. 22.80c
  11 EtGen AB β 100
  12 Σ AR 1.1297
  13-14 Σ BDP Pi. N. 4, 10
  14-18 PSI 1217B fr. 1+2, 1-5 [image], Trismegistos 144442

This section includes Callimachus' first question to the Muses (in this case Clio): why do the people of Paros sacrifice to the Graces without wreaths and flutes (Fr. 3)? The answer was apparently that King Minos of Crete, who exercized hegemony over the Cyclades (Fr. 4), was sacrificing to the Graces on Paros when he received news that his son Androgeos had died (or was killed) in Athens. He immediately discarded these signs of joy (garlands and flutes) as he completed the sacrifice (Fr. 5). Androgeos returns in fr. 103.

Fr. 6 takes up the question of the origins of the Graces. It exhibits one of the conventional features of a hymn, namely, asking which of conflicting views of the honorand's genealogy is correct. Two mothers are proposed: the Titan Eurynome or Eileithyia. 

The section seems to end (Fr. 7) with a prayer for the success and immortality of Callimachus’ own verses. Line 14 is perhaps imitated by Catullus, c.1.10: plus uno maneat perenne saeclo.

 

Bibliography

Massimilla, Giulio. 1994. ‘L’invocazione di Callimaco alle cariti nel primo libro degli Aitia (fr. 7,9-14 Pf.).’ In Proceedings of the 20th International Congress of Papyrologists, Copenhagen, 23-29 August 1992, edited by Adam Bülow-Jacobsen, 322-5. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen.

Fr 3

κῶς: how, why (Ionic for πῶς)

ἄνις: without (prep + gen.)  = ἄνευ

αὐλός -οῦ, ὁ: a flute, pipe

ῥέζω: to do, make a sacrifice

στέφος -εος, τό: wreath, garland

ἁνδάνω: to please, delight, gratify. εὔαδε is Epic aor ind act 3rd sg

       

Fr 4

ἐπιτείνω: to stretch upon or over

ζυγόν -οῦ, τό: a yoke

αὐχήν -ένος, ὁ: the neck, throat

Μίνως Μίνωος, ὁ: Minos, king of Crete

       

Fr 5

θύος θύεος, τό: a sacrifice, offering for sacrifice

       

Fr 6

Εὐρυνόμη -ης, ἡ: Eurynome, supposed mother of the Muses

Τιτῆνες: the Titans (Ionic for Τιτᾶνες -ων, οἱ)

εἶπαν: “they said” (> λέγω aor ind act 3rd pl [poetic])

       

Fr 7

ἀνείμων -ον: (adj.) naked, without clothing

κόλπος -ου, ὁ: womb

Ἐλείθυια -ης, ἡ: Eilithyia, the goddess of childbirth (also spelled Εἰλείθυια) 10

Πάρος -ου, ἡ: Paros, one of the Cyclades

κάλλος -εος, τό: beauty; rich garments, fineries

αἰόλος -η -ον: quick-moving; shimmering, iridescent

βεῦδος -εος, τό: a woman’s dress or tunic

ὄστλιγξ -ιγγος, ἡ: a lock or strand of hair

ἄλειφαρ -ατος, τό: oil, oil used for anointing

αἰὲν: always, ever (= ἀεί)

ῥέω: to flow, stream

ἔλλατε: “be gracious!” plural Aeolic form of the singular ἵληθι, commonly used in prayers (e.g., Od. 3.380)

ἐλεγεῖον -ου, τό: an elegiac poem, elegy

ἐμψάω, poet. ἐνιψάω: wipe in or upon

λῐπάω: to be sleek, be radiant; anoint

πουλύ = πολύ

Fragment 7a Harder (=Σ Flor. 21-37; 1, p. 13 Pf.) PSI 1219 fr. 1.21–37 [image], Trismegistos 59399

    [. . . .].τα[. . . . . . . . . . . . . .]. . κῶς ἄν[ις αὐλῶν

       [ζητ]εῖ διὰ τίνα [αἰτίαν ἐν Πάρ]ῳ χωρὶς αὐ[λοῦ καὶ στε-

       φάνου ταῖς Χ[ά]ρισι θ[ύου]σι. Μίνῳ [τ]ῷ Δ[ιὸς καὶ Εὐρώ-

       πης θαλασσοκρατοῦντι καὶ ταῖς Χάρ[ι]σιν ἐν Π[άρῳ θύ-

5      οντι Ἀ[ν]δρόγεω τοῦ παιδὸς θάνατος ἀπηγγ[έλλε-

       το. ὁ δὲ οὔτε τῶν Χαρίτων τῆς θυσίας ἠμέλησεν, ἀλ[λ' ἔ-

       θυσεν, οὔτε τοῦ παιδὸς τὸν θάνατον παρενόμ[η-

       σεν, τὸν δ’ αὐλητὴν ἐπέσχε καὶ τὸν στέφανον ἀ[πέ

       θετο• καὶ οὕτως παρὰ τοῖς Παρ[ίο]ις τὸ ἔθος ἔμεινε• τ[αῦ-

10    τά τε οὖν παρὰ Κλειοῦς φησιν ἀκη[κο]ένα[ι] καὶ περὶ τῆς [τῶν

       Χαρίτων γενέσεως ὡς Διονύ[σου] εἰσὶ καὶ Κορων[ίδος

       νύμφης Ναξίας, αὐτὸς προ[ε]ιπὼν ὡς παρ’ [οἷς

       μὲν ἱστοροῦνται Ἥρας καὶ Διὸς ε[ἶν]αι, παρ’ ο[]ς δὲ Ε[ὐρυ-

       [ν]όμης τῆς Ὠκεανοῦ καὶ Διός, παρ’ οἷς δὲ Ε[ὐάν-

15    θης τῆς Οὐρανοῦ καὶ Διός. τὴν δ’ ἱστορίαν ἔλαβεν π[αρὰ Ἀγίου]

       καὶ Δερκύλου. ἐστὶ καὶ παρὰ Ἀριστοτέλει ἐ[ν] τῇ Παρίω[ν]

       πολιτεί[ᾳ.

 

". . . why. . . without flutes"

  He asks, for what cause they sacrifice to the Charites in Paros

  without flutes and wreaths. When Minos, the son of of Zeus and Europa,

  ruled the seas and sacrificed to the Charites at Paros,

  the death of his son Androgeos was reported (to him).5

  He neither neglected the sacrifice to the Charites, but sacrificed

  (anyway), nor did he transgress tha law with respect to his son's death,

  but he stopped the flute player and laid aside his wreath.  

  And so the custom remained for the Parians.

  He says that he heard these things from Clιo, and that he10

  heard about the birth of the Charites, that they are (children) of Dionysus and Coronis,

  the Naxian nymph, after he himself had said before that according to some

  they are said to be (children) of Hera and Zeus, according to others of

  Eurynome, the daughter of Oceanus, and Zeus, and according to still others of

  Euanthe, the daughter of Uranus, and Zeus.  He received this story from Agias15

  and Deryclus. It is also in Aristotle's On the Constitution of the

  Parians.

  

Fr. 3

. . . why does it please

the Parian to sacrifice without flutes and garlands . . .

 

Fr. 4

. . . and Minos stretched the heavy yoke over the neck of the islands

 

Fr. 5

. . . he began to toss the sacrifice

 

Fr. 6

but others said it was Eurynome the Titan (who) bore (the Graces)

 

Fr. 7

naked, as from your mother's

womb you came, when Eileithyia was willing,10

but in Paros, wearing rich and iridescent dresses ...

(you stood?), and oil always flows from your locks,

come now, and wipe your anointed hands

on my elegies, so that they may remain for many a year.

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Suggested Citation

Susan Stephens, Callimachus: Aetia. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2015. ISBN: 978-1-947822-07-8.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/callimachus-aetia/book-1/graces