Chapter 6.13

In omnī Galliā eōrum hominum quī aliquō sunt numerō atque honōre genera sunt duo. Nam plēbēs paene servōrum habētur locō, quae nihil audet per sē, nūllō adhibētur cōnsiliō. Plērīque, cum aut aere aliēnō aut māgnitūdine tribūtōrum aut iniūriā potentiōrum premuntur, sēsē in servitūtem dicant nōbilibus, quibus in hōs eadem omnia sunt iūra quae dominīs in servōs. Sed dē hīs duōbus generibus alterum est druidum, alterum equitum. Illī rēbus dīvīnīs intersunt, sacrificia pūblica āc prīvāta prōcūrant, religiōnēs interpretantur: ad hōs māgnus adulēscentium numerus disciplīnae causā concurrit, māgnōque hī sunt apud eōs honōre. Nam ferē dē omnibus contrōversiīs pūblicīs prīvātīsque cōnstituunt et, sī quod est admīssum facinus, sī caedēs facta, sī dē hērēditāte, dē fīnibus contrōversia est, īdem dēcernunt, praemia poenāsque cōnstituunt; sī quī aut prīvātus aut populus eōrum dēcrētō nōn stetit, sacrificiīs interdīcunt. Haec poena apud eōs est gravissima. Quibus ita est interdictum, hī numerō impiōrum āc scelerātōrum habentur, hīs omnēs dēcēdunt, aditum sermōnemque dēfugiunt, nē quid ex contāgiōne incommodī accipiant, neque hīs petentibus iūs redditur, neque hōnōs ūllus commūnicātur. Hīs autem omnibus druidibus praeest ūnus, quī summam inter eōs habet auctōritātem. Hōc mortuō, aut sī quī ex reliquīs excellit dīgnitāte succēdit, aut, sī sunt plūrēs parēs, suffrāgiō druidum, nōn numquam etiam armīs dē prīncipātū contendunt. Hī certō annī tempore in fīnibus Carnūtum, quae regiō tōtīus Galliae media habētur, cōnsīdunt in locō cōnsecrātō. Hūc omnēs undique quī contrōversiās habent conveniunt eōrumque dēcrētīs iūdiciīsque pārent. Disciplīna in Britanniā reperta atque inde in Galliam trānslāta esse exīstimātur, et nunc quī dīligentius eam rem cōgnōscere volunt plērumque illō discendī causā profīcīscuntur.

督伊德教的祭司(Druids)和骑士们一起拥有了所有的政治权力。大众的潦倒。督伊德教祭司的宗教和社会权力;他们的教条来自不列颠。

Qui aliquo sunt in numero atque honore: “那些拥有名气和受人尊敬的人” (Anthon).

aliquo numero: “任何名气” (Walker);“任何重要的地位” (Moberly)

genera: “阶级”。照字面意识的说,也就是“种类”,或“级别”。(Anthon)

plebes: 这是一个第五词尾变化的名词,参照plebs。(Allen & Greenough) 对比罗马平民

cum…premuntur: 一个表达重复活动的普遍条件句,cum代表“当…的时候”或“和…一样频繁” (A&G 542)

aere alieno: “通过还债”。Aes alienum字面意思着“另一个人的钱”,即欠他人的钱。罗马人制造的第一种钱币是用黄铜的,因此他们用黄铜aes代表金钱。

nobilibus: 对比罗马的贵族们

magnitudine tributorum: “税收的沉重”(Anthon).

iniuria: “压迫”。字面意思是“有害的事情”,或者“蛮横的对待” (Anthon)

Sese dicant: “放弃他们自己” (Anthon).

quae dominis:(表示占有的与格)“主人拥有…” (Allen & Judson) (A&G 373)

Druides: 对比罗马教士

equitum: 这里代表了“骑士”,而不是“骑兵”。在这一节中提到的“骑士”是高卢的贵族阶级,而在第二章(§ 2)提到的“高阶级的人”则是指最优秀的骑士们。(Rice Holmes)。对比罗马骑士团。

religiones: “对宗教的疑问” (Rice Holmes).

si qui. . . populus: “如果有任何人,无论是独自一人还是隶属于某个部落” (Rice Holmes).

decreto non stetit: “不遵守这个决定”(Walker).

his...decedunt: His是与格,de via和decedunt一起理解,就像在中文里可以说“走开”,也就是“从路中间走开”。(Rice Holmes);在街上为他们让开道路。(Allen & Greenough).

incommodi: 跟随着quid,表示部分的属格。(Allen & Greenough).

Huc omnes...parent: 在第五章中,凯撒说过Druids(督伊德教的祭司)是“几乎所有纷争中的审判官”。(fere de omnibus controversiis . . . constituunt)。向他们上诉的人来自骑士阶级(第三章),因为只有他们自己就能支付起旅途的费用,再加上凯撒在第三章提到过,因为骑士对于隶属于他们的下属拥有无限的权利,或许不用求助于Druids就能平定所有的小纷争。Druids并没有在司法上的垄断地位埃杜伊人的Vergobret(即16,第五章and p.liv?)拥有“决定他族人生或死的权利”,就像古代父亲对他的妻儿所拥有的权利一样。(vi.19, § 3?);每一个部落的首领都有权裁决对国家有害的罪行(i.4; v.56, § 3; vii.4, § 1),虽然他判定的处罚可能需要被Druids提前批准和监督管理。(Rice Holmes).

ădhĭbĕo, -ēre: 出席;咨询;召唤,邀请

trĭbūtum, -ī n.: 赠品,贡物

servĭtūs, -ūtis, f.: 奴隶制,奴役

Drŭĭdes, -um m.: 高卢教士

dīvīnus, -a, -um: 神圣的

săcrĭfĭcĭum, -iī, n.: 祭品

prōcūro, -āre: 照料,照顾

rĕlĭgĭo, -ōnis, f.: 宗教义务,膜拜

interpretor, -ārī: 解释,解读

ădŭlescens, -entis: 年轻的;(实名词)年轻人

concurrō, -currere, -currī, -cursum: 集合,聚集

admittō, -mittere, -mīsī, -missum: 释放,使进入,承诺

hērēdĭtas, -ātis f.: 遗产

dēcrētum, -i n.: 法令,判决

interdīco, -ĕre, -xi, -ctum: 阻止,警告

impĭus, -a, -um: 邪恶的

scelerō, -āre: 污染,污辱

dēcēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessum: 离开,撤退

ădĭtus, -ūs n.: 接近,前进;入场,特权

dēfugiō, -ere, -fūgī: 逃跑

contāgĭo, -ōnis f.: 接触,联系

incommŏdum, -ī, n.: 困难,伤害,不辛

hŏnos, -ōris m.: 荣誉,卓越

commūnicō, -āre: 分享,沟通,和...分开

praesum, -esse, -fūi: 成为...的领导者;对...负责

excello, -ĕre, -cellŭi, -celsum: 优秀,杰出

succēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessum: 跟随,成功,取代…

suffrāgĭum, -i n.: 投票,选举权

prīncipātus, -ūs, m.: 首位,领导,霸权

contendō, -ere, -dī, -tus: 竭尽全力

consīdo, -ĕre, -sēdi, -sessum: 安定

cōnsecrō, -āre: 奉献,尊崇奉献,尊崇

rĕpĕrĭo, -īre, repperi, rĕpertum: 寻找;起源于…

trānsferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātum: 携带...到

dīligēns, -entis: 勤奋的,严谨的,小心的

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Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-02-3. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/zh-hans/chapter-6-13