Chapter 4.29

Eādem nocte accidit ut esset lūna plēna, quī diēs maritimōs aestūs māximōs in Ōceanō efficere cōnsuēvit, nostrīsque id erat incōgnitum. Ita ūnō tempore et longās nāvēs, quibus Caesar exercitum trānsportandum cūrāverat quāsque in āridum subdūxerat, aestus complēverat et onerāriās, quae ad ancorās erant dēligātae, tempestās adflīctābat, neque ūlla nostrīs facultās aut administrandī aut auxiliandī dabātur. Complūribus nāvibus frāctīs, reliquae cum essent fūnibus, ancorīs, reliquīsque armāmentīs āmīssīs ad nāvigandum inūtilēs, māgna, id quod necesse erat accidere, tōtīus exercitūs perturbātiō facta est. Neque enim nāvēs erant aliae quibus reportārī possent, et omnia deërant quae ad reficiendās nāvēs erant ūsuī et, quod omnibus cōnstābat hiemāre in Galliā oportēre, frūmentum hīs in locīs in hiemem prōvīsum nōn erat.

风暴和海浪摧毁了凯撒的舰队。

eadem nocte: 根据天文计算,这是在公元前55年8月20日晚上。(Harkness)凌晨2点时是满月。(Allen & Greenough)

qui dies: “那个...的时期”(Harkness)

aestus maximos: “春潮”。据说在迪尔涨潮和落潮的平均高度差是16英尺。这个潮汐由于有风助势涨得很高。(Walker)英吉利海峡的潮尤为高,达到20英尺,而在意大利沿海的潮只有几英尺。(Towle & Jenks)

nostris...incognitum : 罗马人熟知地中海,那里的海潮只涨几英尺,他们在与Veneti(地名)人的战斗中积累了应付潮汐的经验。(Walker)

adflictabat: “冲撞”(Allen & Judson)

quae...deligatae: “被锚固定住” 运输船比战舰要重,并且凯撒认为不值得费力将它们停靠在岸边。(Walker)

facultas: “(做一件事的)机会”(Allen & Greenough)

funibus…amissis: “基于...的损失”(Kelsey)(A&G 420)

magna: 振动的;不安的(Kelsey)

id quod necesse erat: “注定会发生”(Kelsey)“一件不能避免发生的事。” 当一句话为先行词时,“Id”通常作为关系词的前缀,将这句话概括成一个词并使句子整体看起来更简洁。(Moberly)(A&G 307.d)

perturbatio: “骚动;暴乱”(Kelsey)

exercitus: 此处exercitus一如既往的用于形容步兵,以区别于骑兵。(Rice Holmes)

quibus...possent: 表达特征的从句(Walker)(A&G 535.a)

omnia quae erant usui: “所有需要的东西”(Walker);usui:有意地;故意地;带有目的性地 (A&G 382)

quod...constabat: “因为这对所有人来说都是显而易见的”。(Harkness)

hiemare opportere: “他们必须度过冬天”(Walker)

in hiemem: “在冬季”(Walker)

mărĭtĭmus, -a, -um: 海的;海洋的;沿海的

aestus, -ūs m.: 沸腾;搅动

Ōceanus, -i m.: 指海洋

consŭĕo, -ēre: 习惯于

incognĭtus, -a, -um: 未被检查过的;未知的

transporto, -āre: 携带;运输

aridus, -a, -um: 干的;枯萎的;干枯的

complĕo, -ēre, -plēvi, -plētum: 装满;完成,充满军队,舰队,军团的数量;使增强勇气;使充满感情;完成

ŏnĕrārĭus, -a, -um: 负担的;运输的

ancŏra, -ae f.: 抛锚;使固定

dēlĭgo, -āre: 系;绑

adflīctō, -āre: 骚动;碰撞;困扰;悲痛的;伤心的

admĭnistro, -āre: 帮助;援助;管理;指导

făcultas, -ātis f.: 可行性;可能性;机会;能力;方法;资源;充裕

auxĭlĭor, -āri: 帮助;援助;支持

complūres, -es, -a (-ia): 几个;一些;许多

fūnis, -is m.: 绳子;绳索

armāmenta, ōrum, n.: 任何用途的工具,用具;船的滑车,滑轮索具

nāvĭgo, -āre: 航行;启航

ĭnūtĭlis, -e: 无用的;没用的;无益的

perturbātĭo, -ōnis f.: 混淆;混乱;骚乱

rĕporto, -āre: 带回;运回;递送

rĕfĭcĭo, -ficĕre, -fēci, -fectum: 重新制作;恢复;修理;使恢复;使复兴

hĭĕmo, -āre: 冬天;度过冬天

prōvĭdĕo, -vidēre, -vīdi, -vīsum: 期待;盼望;隔着一定距离看

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Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-02-3. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/zh-hans/chapter-4-29