Latin: Alphabetical

Undefined

This version of the list has been superceded by the database version.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V |

A

ā ab abs: from, by (+abl.)

abeō -īre -iī -itum: go away

absum abesse āfuī: be away, absent

ac: and in addition, and also, and; (after comparatives) than; simul ac, as soon as; → atque

accēdō -cēdere -cessī -cessum: approach

accidō -cidere -cidī: fall; happen

accipiō -cipere -cēpī -ceptum: receive

ācer ācris ācre: sharp, piercing

aciēs -ēī f.: edge; line of battle

ad: to, up to, towards (+acc.)

addō -dere -didī -ditum: give to

addūcō -ere -dūxī -ductum: lead to, induce

adeō -īre -iī -itum: go to

adeō: (adv.) to such a degree, so

adhibeō -hibēre -hibuī -hibitum: apply

adhūc: thus far, to this point

adsum adesse affuī: be present

adveniō -īre -vēnī -ventum: come to, arrive at

adversus -a -um: facing, opposed; unfavorable; adversus (-um): (adv. and prep.) facing, opposite, against, opposed (to)

advertō -vertere -vertī -versum: turn towards

aedēs -is f.: building; (pl.) house

aeger aegra aegrum: sick; aegrē, with difficulty

aequor aequoris n.: level surface, sea, plain

aequus -a -um: equal; aequē, equally

āēr āeris m.: air

aes aeris n.: copper, bronze

aetās -tātis f.: age, time of life

aeternus -a -um: everlasting, eternal

aethēr aetheris n.: pure upper air, ether, heaven, sky

aevum -i n.: eternity; lifetime, age

afferō afferre attulī allātum: bring to

afficiō -ficere -fēcī -fectum: affect, visit with (+ abl.)

ager agrī m.: field

agitō -āre: drive

āgmen -minis n.: line of march

agō agere ēgī āctum: drive, do, act

aiō: say, affirm, say yes; ut āiunt: as they say

albus -a -um: white

aliēnus -a -um: foreign, strange

aliquandō: at some time, at length

aliquis -quae -quod: some, any; si quis, si quid: anyone who, anything that

aliter: otherwise, differently

alius -a -ud: other, another; ālias: at another time

alō alere aluī alitum: nourish

alter altera alterum: other of two

altus -a -um: high, lofty; deep

amīcitia -ae f.: friendship

amīcus -a -um: friendly; (as subst.) friend

āmittō -mittere -mīsī -missum: let go, send away

amnis -is m.: river, torrent

amō -āre: to love; amāns -ntis m./f.: lover

amor -ōris m.: love

amplus -a -um: large, spacious

an: or (in questions); utrum ... an: whether ... or

anima -ae f.: breath, spirit

animal -ālis n.: a living being, an animal

animus -ī m.: spirit, mind

annus -ī m.: year

ante: before, in front of (adv. and prep. + acc.)

antequam: before

antīquus -a -um: ancient, old-time, former

aperiō aperīre aperuī apertum: open

appāreō -ēre -uī: appear, become visible

appellō -pellāre: call, address, name

aptus -a -um: fit, suitable

apud: near, in the presence of (+acc.)

aqua -ae f. water

āra -ae f.: altar

arbitror arbitrārī arbitrātus sum: consider, think

arbor arboris f.: tree

ārdeō ārdēre ārsī ārsum: blaze, glow; be eager

argentum -ī n.: silver, money

arma -ōrum n. pl.: arms, weapons

ars artis f.: skill

arvum -ī n.: ploughed land, field

arx arcis f.: citadel, castle; summit

ascendō -ere -scendī -scēnsum: climb up, ascend

aspiciō -ere -spēxī -spectum: look to or at, behold

astrum -ī n.: star; constellation

at: but, but yet

atque: and in addition, and also, and; (after comparatives) than; simul atque, as soon as; → ac

auctor -ōris m.: originator, founder

auctōritās -ātis f.: influence, clout, authority

audāx audācis: bold, daring; reckless

audeō audēre ausus sum: dare, be eager

audiō -īre -īvī/-iī -ītum: hear, listen to

auferō auferre abstulī ablātum: take away

augeō augēre auxī auctum: increase

aura -ae f.: breeze

aureus -a -um: golden; splendid

auris -is f.: ear

aurum -ī n.: gold

aut: or

autem: moreover, but, however

auxilium -ī n.: support, assistance; (pl.) auxiliary forces

avis -is f.: bird

B

barbarus -ī m.: foreigner, barbarian

beātus -a -um: happy, blessed, prosperous, fortunate

bellum -ī n.: war

bene: well

beneficium -ī n.: service, kindness

bonus -a -um: good

bōs bovis m.: ox; gen. pl. boum

brevis -e: short, shallow, brief; adv. breviter

C

cadō cadere cecidī cāsum: fall, be killed

caecus -a -um: blind, unseeing; dark, obscure

caedēs -is f.: killing, slaughter

caedō caedere cecīdī caesum: strike, kill, cut down

caelestis -e: from or of heaven; caelestēs, the gods

caelum -ī n.: sky, heavens

campus -ī m.: plain, field

candidus -a -um: white, fair

canis -is m./f.: dog

canō canere cecinī cantum: sing

capiō capere cēpī captum: seize

caput capitis n.: head

careō -ēre -uī: lack (+ abl.)

carmen -inis n.: song

cārus -a -um: dear

castrum -ī n.: fortress, (regularly plural, castra camp)

castus -a -um: pure, spotless, chaste

cāsus -ūs m.: a fall; chance, accident

causa -ae f.: cause, reason; causā + preceding genitive, for the sake of

caveō cavēre cāvī cautum: be on guard, beware

cēdō cēdere cessī cessum: go, move; yield

celebrō -āre: frequent, throng, crowd

celer -is -e: swift; adv. celeriter

cēnseō cēnsēre cēnsuī cēnsum: assess, rate; think, decide

centum: one hundred

cernō cernere crēvī crētum: discern, separate

certō -āre: decide by contest; fight, compete, vie

certus -a -um: sure, fixed; certē, certainly, surely

cēterus -a -um: the others, the rest; adv. cēterum: for the rest, in addition, however, that may be

cibus -ī m.: food

cingō cingere cīnxī cīnctum: encircle, surround, gird

cinis cineris m./f.: ashes, embers

circā: around (adv. and prep. +acc.)

citus -a -um: swift; citō swiftly

cīvis -is m./f.: citizen

cīvitās -ātis f.: citizenship, state

clāmor -ōris m.: outcry, shout

clārus -a -um: clear, distinguished

classis -is f.: class, division, fleet

claudō claudere clausī clausum: close, shut

coepī coepisse coeptus: begin

cōgitō -āre: think, reflect

cōgnōscō -gnōscere -gnōvī -gnitum: learn, understand

cōgō cōgere coēgī coāctum: drive together; compel

cohors cohortis f.: cohort, band, troop

colligō -ere -lēgī -lēctum: gather together, collect

colō colere coluī cultum: inhabit, cultivate

color -ōris m.: color

coma -ae f.: hair, tresses

comes comitis m./f.: companion, comrade; attendant, follower

committō -mittere -mīsī -missum: join, entrust to (+ dat.); perform, do

commūnis -e: common, general

comparō -āre: get ready, provide; compare

compōnō -pōnere posuī positum: build, construct, arrange

concēdō -cēdere -cessī -cessum: yield, withdraw

condīciō -ōnis f.: agreement, condition

condō -dere -didī -ditum: build, found; store up; hide, conceal

cōnferō cōnferre contulī collātum: collect, bring to

cōnficiō -ficere -fēcī -fectum: complete, accomplish; destroy, kill, consume

cōnfiteor cōnfitērī cōnfessus sum: admit (a fact), confess (a crime); reveal, disclose

coniunx coniugis m./f.: spouse, husband, wife

cōnor cōnārī cōnātus sum: try, attempt

cōnsequor -sequī -secūtus sum: follow up, overtake, attain

cōnsilium -ī n.: plan; council, group of advisors

cōnsistō -sistere -stitī: take position; consist in, be composed of

cōnstituō -stituere -stituī -stitūtum: establish, put together

cōnstō -stāre -stitī: agree; constat, it is established that (+ acc. and infin.)

cōnsuētūdo -inis f.: custom, habit

cōnsul -ulis m.: consul

cōnsulō -sulere -suluī -sultum: consult, plan (+ acc.); consider the interests of (+dat)

cōnsūmō -sūmere -sūmpsī -sūmptum: to use up, consume

contemnō -temnere -tempsī -temptum: despise, scorn, disdain

contineō -tinēre -tinuī -tentum: contain, restrain

contingō -tingere -tigī -tactum: touch, be contiguous to

contrā: against, opposite (adv. and prep. +acc.)

conveniō -venīre -vēnī -ventum: assemble, meet; agree

convertō -vertere -vertī -versum: turn about, turn, change

convīvium -iī n.: banquet, feast

cōpia -ae f.: abundance; (pl.) troops

cor cordis n.: heart; cordī est, it is pleasing to (+ dat.)

cornu -ūs n.: horn

corpus corporis n.: body

corrumpō -rumpere -rūpī -ruptum: break up, destroy, ruin

crēdō crēdere crēdidī crēditum: believe

creō -āre: produce, create; elect, choose

crēscō crēscere crēvī crētum: grow, increase

crīmen -inis n.: verdict, accusation

culpa -ae f.: guilt, fault, blame

cum: with (prep. + abl.); when, since, although (conjunction + subj.)

cūnctus -a -um: entire all together

cupīdō -inis f.: desire, eagerness, craving

cupiō -ere -īvī -ītum: desire

cūr: why?

cūra -ae f.: care, concern

cūrō -āre: watch over, look after, care for (+ acc.)

currō currere cucurrī cursum: run

currus -ūs m.: chariot

cursus -ūs m.: course, advance

custōs custōdis m.: guardian

D

damnō -āre: condemn

damnum -ī n.: damage, injury

dē: down from, about, concerning (+ abl.)

dēbeō dēbēre dēbuī dēbitum: owe, be obliged

decem: ten

dēcernō -cernere -crēvī -crētum: determine, decide

decet decēre decuīt: to add grace to, adorn, become; (impers.) it is right, proper, fitting (+ acc. and infin.)

decus decoris n.: beauty, grace; ornament, glory, honor

dēdūcō -dūcere -dūxī -ductum: launch, lead away

dēfendō -fendere -fendī -fēnsum: defend, ward off

dēferō -ferre -tulī -lātum: carry away, report

deficiō -ficere -fēcī -fectum: fail, give out; revolt from

deinde/dein: then, next

dēnique: finally

dēscendō -scendere -scendī -scēnsum: climb down, descend

dēserō -ere dēseruī dēsertum: leave, desert, abandon

dēsīderō -āre: long for, desire greatly

dēsinō -sinere -siī -situm: leave off, cease

dēsum -esse -fuī: be lacking

deus -ī m.; dea -ae f. god; goddess

dexter -tra -trum: right; dextera -ae f.: right hand

dīcō dīcere dīxī dictum: say; causam dīcere, plead a case; diem dīcere, appoint a day

diēs diēī m./f.: day

differō differre distulī dīlātum: scatter; publish, divulge; differ; defer, postpone

difficilis -e: not easy, hard, difficult

dīgnitās -ātis f.: worth, reputation, honor

dīgnus -a -um: worthy

dīligō -ligere -lēxī -lēctum: choose, cherish, love

dīmittō -mittere -mīsī -missum: send away

discēdō -ere -cessī -cessum: go away, depart

disciplīna -ae f.: training, instruction; learning, discipline

discō -ere didicī: learn

diū: for a long time

dīversus -a -um: different, diverse

dīves dīvitis: rich (poet. dīs, dītis)

dīvidō -ere dīvīsī dīvīsum: divide, separate

dīvitiae -ārum f. pl.: riches, wealth

dīvus -a -um: divine, godlike

dō dare dedī datum: give

doceō -ēre -uī doctum: teach

doleō -ēre doluī: feel pain or grief, grieve

dolor -ōris m.: pain, grief

dolus -ī m.: artifice, device, trick

dominus -ī m.; domina -ae f.: household master, lord; mistress

domus -ūs f.: house, home

dōnec: until

dōnō -āre: present with a gift (+ acc. of person and abl. of thing)

dōnum -ī n.: gift, present

dormiō -īre: sleep

dubitō -āre: hesitate, doubt

dubius -a -um: doubtful, sine dubiō, without a doubt, certainly

dūcō dūcere dūxī ductum: lead; uxōrem dūcere, marry

dulcis -e: sweet

dum: while (+ indic.); until (+ subj.); provided that (+ subj.)

duo duae duo: two

dūrus -a -um: hard, tough, harsh

dux ducis m./f.: leader, general

E

ecce: behold!

ēdīcō -dīcere -dīxī -dictum: declare

ēdō ēdere ēdidī ēditum: put forth, state, explain

ēdūcō -dūcere -dūxī -ductum: lead forth

efficiō -ficere -fēcī -fectum: bring about, complete; render (+ ut + subj.)

effundō -fundere -fūdī -fūsum: pour out

ego meī mihi mē: I, me

ēgredior ēgredī ēgressus sum: stride out, depart, disembark from (+ abl.)

ēgregius -a -um: distinguished, uncommon

ēligō ēligere ēlēgī ēlēctum: pick out, select

enim: for, indeed

eō īre iī/īvī itum: go

eō: (adv.) there, to that place

epistula -ae f.: letter

eques -itis m.: horseman, knight

equus -ī m.: horse

ergō: therefore

ēripiō -ripere -ripuī -reptum: snatch away, rescue, save

errō -āre: go astray, wander

error -ōris m.: wandering; error, mistake

et: and

etiam: also, even

ex ē: out of, from (+ abl.)

excipiō -cipere -cēpī -ceptum: take out

exemplum -ī n.: example, sample, copy

exeō -īre -iī -itum: go forth

exerceō -ercēre -ercuī -ercitum: train, exercise, carry on

exercitus -ūs m.: army

exigō -igere -ēgī -āctum: drive out; collect

exīstimō -āre: think, believe

experior -perīrī -pertus sum: try thoroughly, test, experience

exsilium -ī n.: exile, banishment

exspectō -āre: watch, wait, expect

extrēmus -a -um: farthest, situated at the end or tip, extreme

F

fābula -ae f.: account, tale, story

faciēs -ēī f.: form, appearance

facilis -e: easy

facinus facinoris n.: deed, crime

faciō facere fēcī factum: do, make

factum -ī n.: deed, accomplishment

fallō fallere fefellī falsum: deceive

falsus -a -um: deceptive, false

fāma -ae f.: rumor, fame

famēs -is f.: hunger, famine

familia -ae f.: household, family

fateor fatērī fassus sum: admit, confess; profess, declare; assent, say yes

fātum -ī n.: fate; death

fax facis f.: torch

fēlīx -īcis: lucky; adv. fēlīciter

fēmina -ae f.: woman

ferē: almost

ferō ferre tulī lātum: bear, carry, endure

ferrum -ī n.: iron, iron weapon or implement

ferus -a -um: wild, fierce; fera -ae f.: wild animal

fessus -a -um: weary, tired

fidēlis -e: faithful

fidēs -eī f.: trust, faith

fīlia -ae f.; fīlius -ī m.: daughter; son

fingō fingere fīnxī fīctum: shape; invent

fīnis -is m.: end, boundary

fīō fierī factus sum: become, happen, be done

flamma -ae f.: flame, fire

fleō flēre flēvī flētum: weep

flōs flōris m.: flower, bloom

fluctus -ūs m: flood, billow, surf

flūmen -inis n.: stream, river

fluō fluere fluxī fluxum: flow

foedus -a -um: foul

fōns fontis m.: spring, fountain

for fārī fātus sum: report, say

fore = futūrum esse; forem, forēs, foret, forent = essem, essēs, esset, essent

fōrma -ae f.: shape; beauty

fors fortis f.: chance; adv. forte: by chance

forsitan, fortasse: perhaps, perchance

fortis -e: brave

fortūna -ae f.: fortune

forum -ī n.: market-place, forum

frangō frangere frēgī frāctum: break, shatter

frāter frātris m.: brother

frequēns -ntis: in large numbers, often

frōns frontis f.: forehead, brow; front

frūctus -ūs m.: fruit, crops; enjoyment, delight

frūmentum -ī n.: grain

fruor fruī frūctus sum: enjoy the produce of, profit by, use (+ abl.)

frūstrā: in vain

fuga -ae f.: flight, route

fugiō fugere fūgī fugitum: flee, escape

fugō -āre: put to flight

fundō fundere fūdī fūsum: pour, scatter

fūnus fūneris n.: funeral; death; dead body

furor -ōris m.: rage, fury

G

gaudeō gaudēre gāvīsus sum: rejoice

gaudium -ī n.: delight, joy, pleasure

gēns gentis f.: family, clan

genus generis n.: origin, lineage, kind

gerō gerere gessī gestum: bear, manage; bellum gerere, wage war

gīgnō gīgnere genuī genitum: beget, bear, bring forth

gladius -ī m.: sword

glōria -ae f.: glory, fame

gradus -ūs m.: step, pace; grade, rank

grātia -ae f.: favor, influence, gratitude

grātus -a -um: pleasant; grateful

gravis -e: heavy, serious

H

habeō habēre habuī habitum: have, hold

haud: not

hic haec hoc: this, these

hīc: here; hinc: from here

hiems hiemis f.: winter

hodiē: today

homō hominis m.: human being

honestus -a -um: honorable

honor -ōris m.: honor, glory; office, post

hōra -ae f.: hour

hortor hortārī hortātus sum: urge strongly, advise, exhort

hospes hospitis m.: guest, guest-friend; stranger; host

hostis -is m./f.: stranger, enemy

hūc: to this place

hūmānus -a -um: human

humus -ī f.: ground; humī: on the ground

I

iaceō iacēre iacuī: lie

iaciō iacere iēcī iactum: throw, hurl

iam: now; already

ibi: there

īctus -ūs m.: blow, stroke

īdem eadem idem: the same

ideō: for this reason

igitur: therefore

ignis -is m.: fire

ille illa illud: that

illīc: at that place, there; illinc: from that place

illūc: to that place

imāgō -inis f.: image, form, figure

imperātor -ōris m.: commander

imperium -ī n.: command, power

imperō -āre: command, control

impetus -ūs m.: attack

impleō -ēre -plēvī -plētum: fill in, fill up

impōnō -ere -posuī -positum: put in, put on, impose, levy upon

in: in, on (+ abl.); into, onto (+ acc)

incidō incidere incidī: fall upon, fall into; happen

incipiō -cipere -cēpī -ceptum: begin

inde: from there, from then

indicō -āre: point out, show, make known

īnferō īnferre intulī illātum: bring upon, against; bellum īnferre: make war on

īnferus -a -um: low; īnferior: lower; īnfimus or īmus: lowest

ingenium -ī n.: disposition, ability, talent

ingēns ingentis: huge, enormous

ingrātus -a -um: unpleasant, disagreeable

ingredior -gredī -gressus sum: step in, enter

inimīcus -a -um: unfriendly

initium -ī n.: beginning

iniūria -ae f.: injustice, wrong, affront

inquam, inquis, inquit, inquiunt: say (used with direct speech)

īnstituō -stituere -stituī -stitūtum: undertake; equip

īnsula -ae f.: island

integer -gra -grum: untouched, fresh, complete, whole

intellegō -legere -lēxī -lēctum: understand

intendō -tendere -tendī -tentum: stretch out, strain

inter: between, among; during (+ acc.)

interficiō -ficere -fēcī -fectum: kill

interim: meanwhile

interrogō -āre: put a question to, ask (+ acc.)

intersum -esse -fuī: to be between; take part in, attend (+dat.); interest, it is in the interest of (+ gen.)

intrā: within (+ acc.)

intrō -āre: enter

inveniō -venīre -vēnī -ventum: find; discover

invidia -ae f.: envy, jealousy, hatred

ipse ipsa ipsum: him- her- itself

īra irae f.: wrath, anger

īrāscor īrāscī īrātus sum: grow angry; īrātus -a -um: angry

is ea id: he, she, it

iste ista istud: that, that of yours; adv. istīc or istūc: over there; istinc: from over there

ita: thus, so

itaque: and so, therefore

item: likewise

iter itineris n.: journey, route

iterum: again

iubeō iubēre iussī iussum: bid, order

iūdex iūdicis m.: judge, juror

iūdicium -ī n.: judgment, decision, trial

iūdicō -āre: judge, decide

iugum -ī n.: yoke; ridge, chain of hills

iungō iungere iūnxī iūnctum: join

iūrō -āre: take an oath, swear; iūs iūrandum, oath

iūs iūris n.: right, justice, law

iūstus -a -um: right, just, fair

iuvenis -is m.: youth

iuvō iuvāre iūvī iūtum: help, assist; please, delight

L

labor -ōris m.: toil, exertion

labōrō -āre: toil, work; be in trouble or distress

lacrima -ae f.: tear

laedō laedere laesī laesum: injure by striking, hurt

laetus -a -um: glad, joyful

lapis lapidis m.: stone

lateō latēre latuī: lie hidden, be hidden

lātus -a -um: broad, wide

latus -eris n.: side, flank

laudō -āre: praise

laus laudis f.: praise, glory

lēgātus -ī m.: lieutenant, envoy

legiō -ōnis f.: legion

legō legere lēgī lēctum: gather, choose, read

levis -e: light, trivial

lēx lēgis f.: law

līber lībera līberum: free; līberī (m. pl.): freeborn children

liber librī m.: book

lībertās -ātis f.: freedom

libet libēre libuit or libitum est: it is pleasing (+ dat. + infin.)

libīdō -inis f.: passion, lust

licet licēre licuit licitum est: it is permitted (+ dat. + infin.); conj. licet: even though

līmen līminis n.: threshold

lingua -ae f.: tongue; language

littera -ae f.: letter, (pl.) literature

lītus -oris n.: shore

locus -ī m.: place; loca (n. pl.) region

longus -a -um: long, far; longē: far, far off

loquor loquī locūtus sum: speak, talk

lūmen luminis n.: light

lūna -ae f.: moon

lūx lūcis f.: light of day

M

maestus -a -um: sad, sorrowful; depressing

magis: more

magister magistrī m.: master, chief

māgnitūdō -inis f.: greatness, size

māgnus -a -um great

māior māius: greater, older; māiōrēs māiōrum: ancestors

mālō mālle māluī: prefer

malus -a -um: bad, evil; male: (adv.) badly

maneō manēre mānsī mānsum: remain

manus -ūs f.: hand; band of men

mare -is n.: sea

marītus -ī m.: husband

māter mātris f.: mother

māteria -ae f.: material, subject matter; timber, lumber

maximus -a -um: greatest; māximē: most, especially, very much

medius -a -um: middle, central

melior melius: better

membrum -ī m.: limb, member of the body

meminī meminisse: remember, recollect

memoria -ae f.: recollection, memory

mēns mentis f.: mind

mēnsa -ae f.: table

mereō merēre meruī meritum: deserve, merit; serve as a soldier

metuō metuere metuī: to fear, to dread

metus -ūs m.: fear, dread

meus -a -um: my

mīles -itis m.: soldier

mīlle (pl.) mīlia: thousand

minus -ōris n.: a smaller number or amount, less; (adv.) minus: to a smaller extent, less

mīror mīrārī mīrātus sum: wonder at, marvel at (+ acc.)

misceō miscēre miscuī mixtum: mix

miser misera miserum: wretched, pitiable

mittō mittere mīsī missum: send, let go

modo: just, just now; modo ... modo: now ... now, at one moment ... at another, sometimes ... sometimes

modus -ī m.: measure, manner, kind

moenia -ium n. pl.: walls, fortifications

mollis -e: soft, yielding, gentle

moneō monēre monuī monitum: warn, advise

mōns montis m.: mountain

mora -ae f.: delay, hindrance

morbus -ī m.: sickness, disease

morior morī mortuus sum: die

moror morārī morātus sum: delay

mors mortis f.: death

mortālis -e: liable to death, mortal

mōs mōris m.: custom, habit; (pl.) character

moveō -ēre mōvī mōtum: move

mox: soon

mulier -eris f.: woman

multitūdō -inis f.: multitude, number

multus -a -um: much, many; multō, by far

mundus -a -um: clean, neat, elegant

mundus -ī m.: world, universe, heavens

mūnus mūneris n.: gift, offering; duty, obligation; (pl.) gladiatorial show

mūrus -ī m.: wall

mūtō -āre: change

N

nam or namque: for, indeed, really

narrō -āre: relate, recount

nāscor nāscī nātus sum: be born

nātūra -ae f.: nature

nātus -ī m.: son

nāvis -is f.: ship

-ne: interrogative particle attached to the emphatic word in a question

nē: lest, that not

nec: and not, nor; nec ... nec, neither ... nor; → neque

necesse (indecl. adj.): necessary

necessitās -tātis f.: necessity, need

nefās: impiety, wickedness

negō -āre: deny, refuse

negōtium -ī n.: business

nēmō: no one (gen. nūllīus, dat. nūllī, abl. nūllō or nūllā → nūllus -a -um)

nemus nemoris n.: grove, forest

neque: and not, nor; neque ... neque, neither ... nor; → nec

nesciō -scīre: not know, be ignorant

niger nigra nigrum: black

nihil, nīl: nothing; not at all

nimius -a -um: too much, excessive; nimis or nimium: excessively

nisi/nī: if not, unless

nōbilis -e: distinguished, noble; (as subst.) a nobleman or woman

noceō nocēre nocuī: harm

nōlō nōlle nōluī: be unwilling

nōmen -inis n.: name

nōn: not

nōndum: not yet

nōs nostrum/nostrī nōbīs nōs: we

nōscō nōscere nōvī nōtum: learn, know

noster nostra nostrum: our

nōtus -a -um: well-known

novus -a -um: new

nox noctis f.: night

nūdus -a -um: naked, bare

nūllus -a -um: not any, no one

num: interrogative particle implying negative answer

nūmen -inis n.: divine will, deity

numerus -ī m.: number, amount

numquam: never

nunc: now

nūntius -ī m.: messenger; news

O

ob: against, on account of (+acc)

occīdō -cīdere -cīdī -cīsum: kill, cut down

occupō -āre: seize, occupy; anticipate, do a thing first (+ infin.)

occurrō -currere -cucurrī -cursum: run to meet; come into one’s mind

oculus -ī m.: eye

ōdī ōdisse: hate

odium -ī n.: hatred

offerō offerre obtulī oblātum: present, offer, expose

officium -ī n.: service, duty

ōlim: formerly, at that time

omnis -e: all, every, as a whole

onus oneris n.: load, burden

opera -ae f.: labor, activity, work

oportet -ēre -uit: it is proper, right (+ acc. + infin.)

oppidum -ī n.: town

ops opis f.: assistance, resources

optimus -a -um: best, excellent; adv. optimē

optō -āre: choose, select

opus operis n.: work

ōrātiō -ōnis f.: speech, address

orbis -is m.: circle; orbis terrārum: world

ōrdō -īnis m.: order, rank

orior orīrī ortus sum: arise, begin

ōrō -āre: pray

ōs ōris n.: mouth, face

os ossis n.: bone

ostendō ostendere ostendī ostentum: show, hold out

ōtium -ī n.: leisure

P

paene: almost

pār paris: equal

parcō parcere pepercī parsum: spare, be sparing of (+ dat.)

parēns -ntis m./f.: parent

pāreō pārēre pāruī: obey

pariō parere peperī partum: bring forth, give birth to; accomplish

parō -āre: prepare, acquire; parātus -a -um, ready

pars partis f.: part

parum: too little

parvus -a -um: small

pateō patēre patuī: lie open, extend; be evident or obvious

pater patris m.: father, ancestor

patior patī passus sum: permit, endure

patria -ae f.: fatherland, country

paucī -ae -a: few

paulō, paulum: to only a small extent, slightly, a little

pauper -eris: poor, lowly

pāx pācis f.: peace

peccō -āre: commit a wrong, injure

pectus -oris n.: chest, breast

pecūnia -ae f.: money

pecus -oris n.: cattle, sheep

pellō pellere pepulī pulsum: strike, beat, push, drive

pendō pendere pependī pēnsum: weigh, hang, suspend; pay

per: through (+acc.)

perdō -dere -didī -ditum: destroy

pereō -īre -iī -itum: perish, be lost

pergō pergere perrēxī perrēctum: continue, proceed; awaken

perīculum -ī n.: danger

permittō -mittere -mīsī -missum: yield, allow, permit

perpetuus -a -um: unbroken, perpetual

pertineō -tinēre -tinuī: extend over, reach; refer to, pertain to, be the business of

perveniō -venīre -vēnī -ventum: arrive, reach

pēs pedis m.: foot

petō petere petīvī petītum: seek, aim at

pietās -tātis f.: sense of duty, devotion, esp. between parents and children

pius -a -um: dutiful, devoted, just, pious

placeō placēre placuī placitum: please

plēbs plēbis f.: the common people

plēnus -a -um: full

plērus- plēra- plērumque: the greater part, very many, most, the majority; plērumque: generally

plūrimus -a -um: the greatest number of, very many; plūrimī, most people

plūs plūris n.: a greater amount or number, more

poena -ae f.: penalty, punishment

poēta -ae m.: poet

pondus ponderis n.: weight

pōnō pōnere posuī positum: put, place; put aside

pontus -ī m.: the open sea, the deep

populus -ī m.: people

porta -ae f.: gate

portō -āre: carry a load

pōscō pōscere popōscī: demand, claim; inquire into

possum posse potuī: be able

post: after (adv. and prep. +acc.)

posteā: afterwards

posterus -a -um: next, later

postquam: after

potēns potentis: able, powerful

potestās -ātis f.: power

potis -e: powerful, able

praebeō -ēre -uī -itum: furnish, supply, render

praeceptum -ī n.: rule, precept; command

praecipiō -cipere -cēpī -ceptum: anticipate, advise, warn

praeda -ae f.: booty, prey

praemium -ī n.: bounty, reward

praesēns -ntis: present, in person, ready

praesidium -ī n.: garrison, protection

praestō -stāre -stitī -stitum: excel, exhibit

praeter: by, along, past; besides, except (+ acc.)

praetereā: besides, moreover

praetor -ōris m.: praetor, one of the chief Roman magistrates

precor -ārī: pray, invoke

premō premere pressī pressum: press, pursue, overwhelm

pretium -ī n.: price, worth, reward; pretium operae: a reward for trouble

prex precis f.: prayers, entreaties

prīmus -a -um: first; adv. prīmum: at first, firstly

prīnceps -cipis: first, chief

prīncipium -ī n.: beginning

prior prius: earlier, preceding; prius or priusquam: before

prīvātus -a -um: personal, private

prō: for, on behalf of, in proportion to (+abl.)

probō -āre: approve, prove; convince one (dat.) of a thing (acc.)

prōcēdō -cēdere -cessī -cessum: go forth, advance

procul: at a distance

prōdō prōdere prōdidī prōditum: publish, hand down; give over, betray

proelium -ī n.: battle

proficīscor -ficīscī -fectus sum: set forth, go

prohibeō -ēre -uī -itum: restrain, keep away

prōmittō -mittere -mīsī -missum: send forth, offer

prope: near, next; (comp.) propior, (superl.) proximus; (adv.) prope, nearly, almost

properō -āre: hasten, speed

prōpōnō -pōnere -posuī -positum: put forth, propose, present

proprius -a -um: one’s own, peculiar

propter: because of (+ acc.)

prōsum prodesse profuī: be of use, do good, help (+ dat.)

prōtinus: at once, forthwith

prōvincia -ae f.: province; official duty

pūblicus -a -um: public, belonging to the state

pudor pudōris m.: sense of shame, modesty, propriety

puella -ae f.: girl; girl-friend

puer puerī m.: boy; slave

pūgna -ae f.: fist-fight; battle

pūgnō -āre: fight

pulcher -chra -chrum: beautiful

putō -āre: think, suppose

Q

quā: where, how

quaerō -rere -sīvī -sītum: seek, inquire

quālis -e: of what kind? what?

quam: how?; (after comparative) than

quamquam: however, although

quamvīs: however you like; although

quandō: when?; since; sī quandō: if ever

quantum: (adv.) how much? how greatly? how much! how greatly! as much as

quantus -a -um: (interr.) how great? (rel.) of what size, amount, etc.

quārē: how? why?

quasi: as if

quattuor: four

-que: and (postpositive enclitic)

quemadmodum: in what manner, how

queror querī questus sum: complain of, lament

quī quae quod: who, which, what

quīcumque quaecumque quodcumque: who-, whatever

quīdam quaedam quoddam: a certain one, someone

quia: because

quidem: certainly, at least

quiēscō quiēscere quiēvī quiētum: keep quiet; sleep

quīn: (adv.) indeed, in fact; (conjunction) so that ... not (+ subj.)

quīppe: (adv.) indeed, surely

quisque quaeque quidque: each one, everyone

quisquam quicquam/quidquam: any (single) person, anyone at all

quis quid: who? what? which?

quisquis quidquid: whoever, whichever

quō: for which reason; to or in what place; to what end, for what purpose?

quōmodo: in what way, how?

quondam: formerly, once

quoniam: since, seeing that

quoque: also, too

quotiēns: how many times?

R

rapiō rapere rapuī raptum: seize, tear away

rārus -a -um: wide apart, loose, thin; rare, seldom

ratiō -ōnis f.: method, plan, reason

recēdō -cēdere -cessī -cessum: step back, recoil, recede, withdraw

recēns -ntis: fresh, new

recipiō -cipere -cēpī -ceptum: take back, receive; sē recipere, betake oneself, go

rēctus -a -um: straight, direct

reddō -dere -didī -ditum: return, give back

redeō -īre -iī -itum: go back, return

referō referre rettulī relātum: bring back; report

regiō -ōnis f.: boundary, region

rēgius -a -um: kingly, royal

rēgnum -ī n.: kingship, kingdom

regō regere rēxī rēctum: guide, rule

relinquō -linquere -līquī -lictum: abandon

reliquus -a -um: remaining, rest

reor rērī rātus sum: think, imagine, suppose, deem

reperiō -perīre -pperī -pertum: find, find out

repetō -petere -petīvī -petītum: demand, exact; revisit; call to mind, recollect; repeat

rēs reī f.: thing (rēs pūblica, commonwealth; rēs familiāris, family property, estate; rēs mīlitāris, art of war; rēs novae, revolution)

respicio -ere -spēxī -spectum: look back, regard, consider

respondeō -spondēre -spondī -spōnsum: answer

retineō -tinēre -tinuī -tentum: hold back, keep

reus -ī m.: defendant

revertō -vertere -vertī: turn back

revocō -āre: call back, recall

rēx rēgis m.: king

rīdeō -ēre rīsī rīsum: laugh, laugh at

rīpa -ae f.: bank of a river

rogō -āre: ask

rumpō rumpere rūpī ruptum: break, rupture

rūrsus: back, again

rūs rūris n.: country

S

sacer sacra sacrum: holy, sacred

sacerdōs -dōtis m./f.: priest, priestess

saeculum -ī n.: generation, age, century

saepe: often

saevus -a -um: fierce, raging, wrathful

salūs -ūtis f.: health, safety

sānctus -a -um: sacred, inviolable

sanguis -inis m.: blood

sānus -a -um: sound, sane

sapiēns -ntis: wise man

sapientia -ae f.: wisdom

satis/sat: (adv.) enough, sufficiently

saxum -ī n.: rock, cliff, crag

scelus -eris n.: crime, sin

scientia -ae f.: knowledge

scīlicet: certainly, of course

sciō -īre -īvī/-iī -ītum: know

scrībō scrībere scrīpsī scrīptum: write

secundus -a -um: following; favorable

sēcūrus -a -um: free from care, tranquil; careless

sed: but

sedeō sedēre sēdī sessum: sit

sēdēs -is f.: seat, abode, habitation

semel: once

semper: always, ever

senātus -ūs m.: senate

senex -is m.: old man, elder; senior, older

sēnsus -ūs m.: feeling, emotion, sense

sententia -ae f.: opinion, judgment

sentiō sentīre sēnsī sēnsum: perceive, feel, hear, see

sepulcrum -ī n.: place of burial, tomb, grave

sequor sequī secūtus sum: follow

sermō -ōnis m.: conversation, discourse

serviō -īre: be a slave, serve (+ dat.)

servō -āre: save, watch over

servus -ī m.: slave

seu: whether; seu ... seu: whether ... or → sīve

sī: if

sīc: in this manner, thus; sīc ... ut:, in the same way as

sīcut: just as

sīdus -eris n.: star, constellation

sīgnum -ī n.: sign, standard, mark

silva -ae f.: forest, grove

similis -e: like, similar

simul: at the same time

sine: without (+ abl.)

singulī -ae -a: one each

sinō sinere sīvī situm: allow, let go

sinus -ūs m.: fold of a garment; lap, bay, gulf

sīve: whether; sīve ... sīve: whether ... or → seu

socius -a -um: friendly, allied; socius -ī m.: partner, comrade

sōl sōlis m.: sun

soleō -ēre -uī -itum: be accustomed

sōlus -a -um: only, alone; sōlum (adv.), only, merely

solvō solvere solvī solūtum: release, set sail

somnus -ī m.: sleep, slumber; (pl.) dreams

sonō sonāre sonuī sonitum: sound, resound

soror -ōris f.: sister

sors sortis f.: lot, fate, destiny; oracle

spargō spargere sparsī sparsum: scatter

spatium -ī n.: space

speciēs -ēī f.: aspect, appearance

spectō -āre: look at, consider

spērō -āre: to hope

spēs speī f.: hope

spīritus -ūs m.: breath, life, spirit

statim: immediately

statuō -ere -uī -ūtum: set up, determine

stella -ae f.: star

stō stāre stetī statum: stand

studeō -ēre -uī: be eager, be zealous, care for (+ dat.)

studium -ī n.: eagerness, zeal

sub: under, close to (+acc. or abl.)

subeō -īre -iī -itum: go under; endure

subitō: suddenly, unexpectedly

sui sibi sē/sēsē: him- her- itself, themselves

sum esse fuī: be, exist

summus -a -um: highest, farthest, last

sūmō sūmere sūmpsī sūmptum: take up

super: over (adv. and prep. +acc.)

superbus -a -um: overbearing, proud, haughty

superō -āre: overcome, surpass, defeat

supersum -esse -fuī: remain, survive; be superfluous (to)

superus -a -um: situated above, upper; superī -ōrum m. pl.: those above, i.e. the gods

supplicium -ī n.: punishment, penalty

suprā: above, beyond (adv. and prep. +acc.)

surgō surgere surrēxī surrēctum: rise

suscipiō -cipere -cēpī ceptum: take up

sustineō sustinēre sustinuī sustentum: hold up, sustain

suus -a -um: his own, her own, its own

T

taceō -ēre -uī -itum: be silent; tacitus -a -um, silent

tālis tāle: such

tam: so, so much

tamen: nevertheless, still

tamquam: so as, just as

tandem: finally

tangō tangere tetigī tāctum: touch

tantus -a -um: so great, so much; tantum / tantummodo: only

tardus -a -um: slow, sluggish, lingering

tēctum -ī n.: roof; building, house

tegō tegere tēxī tēctum: cover, conceal

tellus tellūris f.: earth

tēlum -ī n.: missile, weapon, spear

tempestas -tātis f.: period of time, season; bad weather, storm

templum -ī n.: consecrated ground; temple

tempus -oris n.: time

tendō tendere tetendī tentum: stretch, extend, direct (one’s steps or course)

tenebrae -brārum f. pl.: darkness, the shadows

teneō -ēre -uī tentum: hold, keep

tener -era -erum: tender

temptō -āre: try, test

tergum -ī n.: back, rear; ā tergō: from the rear

terra -ae f.: land

terreō terrēre terruī territum: terrify, frighten

tertius -a -um: third

testis -is m.: witness

timeō -ēre -uī: to fear, to dread

timor -ōris m.: fear

tollō tollere sustulī sublātum: raise up, destroy

tot: so many

tōtus -a -um: whole, entire

trādō -dere -didī -ditum: hand over, yield

trahō trahere trāxī trāctum: drag, draw

trānseō -īre -iī -itum: go across

trēs tria: three

tribūnus -ī m.: tribune, title of various Roman officials, as mīlitum, plēbis, aerāriī

trīstis -e: sad, solemn, grim

tū tuī tibi tē: you (sing.)

tum or tunc: then

turba -ae f.: crowd, uproar

turbō -āre: disturb, confuse

turpis -e: ugly, unsightly; disgraceful

tūtus -a -um: safe, protected

tuus -a -um: your

U

ubi: where, when

ūllus -a -um: any, anyone

ultimus -a -um: farthest, final, last, ultimate

ultrā: beyond, further (adv. and prep. + acc.)

umbra -ae f.: shade, shadow

umquam: ever

unda -ae f.: wave, flowing water, water

unde: from where

undique: from all sides, on all sides

ūnus -a -um: one

urbs urbis f.: city

ūsque: up to; continuously

ūsus -ūs m.: use, experience

ut, utī: as (+ indic.); so that, with the result that (+ subj.)

uterque utraque utrumque: each of two

ūtilis -e: useful

ūtor ūtī ūsus sum: use, consume, employ (+ abl.)

utrum: whether; utrum ... an: whether ... or

uxor uxōris f.: wife

V

vacō vacāre: be empty, open, unoccupied

vacuus -a -um: empty

vagus -a -um: wandering, shifting

valeō valēre valuī: be strong, excel, be valid, prevail; valē: farewell!

validus -a -um: strong

vanus -a -um: empty; false, deceitful

varius -a -um: changing, varied, various

vātēs -is m.: poet, bard

-ve: or (postpositive enclitic)

vehō vehere vēxī vectum: carry; vehor vehī vectus sum: travel, ride

vel: or else, or; even; vel ... vel: either … or

velut: even as, just as

veniō venīre vēnī ventum: come

ventus -ī m.: wind

verbum -ī n.: word

vereor verērī veritus sum: fear, stand in awe of

vērō: in fact, certainly, without doubt

vertō vertere vertī versum: turn

vērus -a -um: true; vērē, truly

vester vestra vestrum: your

vestīgium -ī n.: footstep, footprint, track

vestis -is f.: garment, robe, clothing

vetō -āre vetuī vetītum: forbid

vetus veteris: old

via -ae f.: way, street

vīcīnus -a -um: neighboring, near

victor -ōris m.: conqueror

victōria -ae f.: victory

videō vidēre vīdī vīsum: see

vincō vincere vīcī victum: conquer

vinculum -ī n.: bond, fetter, tie

vīnum -ī n.: vine, wine

vir virī m.: man

virgō -inis f.: maiden, virgin, girl

virtūs -ūtis f.: valor, manliness, virtue

vīs f.: force; (acc.) vim, (abl.) vī; (pl.) vīrēs, strength

vīta -ae f.: life

vitium -ī n.: flaw, fault, crime

vītō -āre: avoid, shun

vīvō vīvere vīxī vīctum: live

vix: scarcely

vocō -āre: call

volō velle voluī: wish, be willing

volucer -cris -cre: flying; volucris -is f./m.: bird

voluntās -ātis f.: wish, desire

voluptās -ātis f.: pleasure, enjoyment

vōs: you (pl.); (gen.) vestrum/vestrī, (dat./abl.) vōbīs, (acc.) vōs

vōtum -ī n.: solemn promise, vow; hope

vōx vōcis f.: voice, utterance

vulgus -ī n. and m.: the common people; vulgō, commonly

vulnus -eris n.: wound

vultus -ūs m.: look, expression, face