Greek: By Parts of Speech

Undefined

Verbs | Nouns | Adjectives | Pronouns | Adverbs | Prepositions | Conjunctions | Particles

Verbs

Vowel Stem

ἀκούω hear ἀκούσομαι, ἤκουσα, ἀκήκοα, plup. ἠκηκόη or ἀκηκόη, ἠκούσθην

βουλεύω plant (to), decide (to) βουλεύσω, ἐβούλευσα, βεβούλευκα, βεβούλευμαι, ἐβουλεύθην

θύω sacrifice θύσω, ἔθυσα, τέθυκα, τέθυμαι, ἐτύθην

κελεύω order, bid, command (+ acc. and infin.) κελεύσω, ἐκέλευσα, κεκέλευκα, κεκέλευσμαι, ἐκελεύσθην

κωλύω hinder, check, prevent (+ acc. and infin.) κωλύσω, ἐκώλυσα, κεκώλυκα, κεκώλυμαι, ἐκωλύθην

λύω loosen, unbind, set free; undo, destroy λύσω, ἔλυσα, λέλυκα, λέλυμαι, ἐλύθην

παύω stop, put an end to; (mid.) cease παύσω, ἔπαυσα, πέπαυκα, πέπαυμαι, ἐπαύθην

πιστεύω trust, rely on, believe in (+ dat.) πιστεύσω, ἐπίστευσα, πεπίστευκα, πεπίστευμαι, ἐπιστεύθην

πορεύω carry; (mid. and pass) go, walk, march πορεύσω, ἐπόρευσα, πεπόρευμαι, ἐπορεύθην

φύω bring forth, produce, beget φύσω, ἔφυσα, 2 aor. ἔφυν grew, πέφυκα be by nature

Contract Verbs

ἀδικέω do wrong; injure ἀδικήσω, ἠδίκησα, ἠδίκηκα, ἠδίκημαι, ἠδικήθην

αἱρέω take, grasp, take by force; (mid.) choose αἱρήσω, 2 aor. εἷλον, ᾕρηκα, ᾕρημαι, ᾑρέθην

αἰτέω ask (for), beg αἰτήσω, ᾔτησα, ᾔτηκα, ᾔτημαι, ᾐτήθην

ἀναιρέω raise, take up; kill, destroy ἀναιρήσω, ἀνεῖλον, ἀνῄρηκα, ἀνῄρημαι, ἀνῃρέθην

ἀξιόω consider worthy ἀξιώσω, ἠξίωσα, ἠξίωκα, ἠξίωμαι, ἠξιώθην

ἀφαιρέω take from, take away ἀφαιρήσω, ἀφεῖλον, ἀφῄρηκα, ἀφῄρημαι, ἀφῃρέθην

βοηθέω help, assist (+ dat.) βοηθήσω, ἐβοήθησα, βεβοήθηκα

δέω lack, miss, stand in need of (+ gen.) δεήσω, ἐδέησα, δεδέηκα, δεδέημαι, ἐδεήθην

δηλόω show, declare, explain δηλώσω, ἐδήλωσα, δεδήλωκα, ἐδηλώθην

δοκέω think, suppose, imagine (+ acc. and infin.); seem, seem good; (impers.) δοκεῖ μοι it seems to me

δράω do, accomplish δράσω, ἔδρασα, δέδρακα, δέδραμαι, ἐδράσθην

ἐάω allow, permit (+ acc. and infin.); let be, let alone ἐάσω, εἴασα

ἐρωτάω ask someone (acc.) something (acc.); question, beg ἐρήσομαι, 2 aor. ἠρόμην

ζάω live ζήσω, ἔζησα, ἔζηκα

ζητέω seek ζητήσω, ἐζήτησα, ἐζήτηκα

καλέω call, summon καλῶ, ἐκάλεσα, κέκληκα, κέκλημαι, ἐκλήθην

κατηγορέω to speak against, to accuse (+ gen.) κατηγορήσω, κατηγόρησα, κατηγόρηκα, κατηγόρημαι, κατηγορήθην

κινέω set in motion, move, rouse κινήσω, ἐκίνησα, κεκίνηκα, κεκίνημαι, ἐκινήθην

κρατέω be victorious, conquer, rule, surpass, excel (+ gen.) κρατήσω, ἐκράτησα, κεκράτηκα, κεκράτημαι, ἐκρατήθην

λαλέω talk, chatter, babble λαλήσω, ἐλάλησα, λελάληκα, ἐλαλήθην

νικάω conquer, win νικήσω, ἐνίκησα, νενίκηκα, νενίκημαι, ἐνικήθην

οἰκέω inhabit, occupy οἰκήσω, ᾤκησα, ᾤκηκα, ᾠκήθην

ὁμολογέω agree ὁμολογήσω, ὡμολόγησα, ὡμολόγηκα, ὡμολόγημαι, ὡμολογήθην

ὁράω see, look (to) ὄψομαι, 2 aor. εἶδον, ἑόρακα and ἑώρακα, ὤφθην, impf. ἑώρων

ὁρμάω set in motion, urge on; (intrans.) start, hasten on ὁρμήσω, ὥρμησα, ὥρμηκα, ὥρμημαι, ὡρμήθην

πειράω (usually mid. πειράομαι) attempt, try, make a trial of (+ gen.) πειράσομαι, ἐπείρασα, πεπείραμαι, ἐπειράθην

πλέω sail πλεύσομαι, ἔπλευσα, πέπλευκα, πέπλευσμαι, ἐπλεύσθην

ποιέω make, produce, cause, do; (mid.) consider, reckon ποιήσω, ἐποίησα, πεποίηκα, πεποίημαι, ἐποιήθην

πολεμέω make war πολεμήσω, ἐπολέμησα, πεπολέμηκα

σκοπέω look at, watch; look into, consider, examine σκοπήσω, ἐσκόπησα

τελευτάω finish; die τελευτήσω, ἐτελεύτησα, τετελεύτηκα, τετελεύτημαι, ἐτελευτήθην

τιμάω to honor τιμήσω, ἐτίμησα, τετίμηκα, τετίμημαι, ἐτιμήθην

τολμάω have the courage, dare; undertake, undergo τολμήσω, ἐτόλμησα, τετόλμηκα, τετόλμημαι, ἐτολμήθην

φοβέω put to flight; (mid. and pass.) flee, fear φοβήσω, ἐφόβησα, πεφόβημαι, ἐφοβήθην

φρονέω think, intend to (+ infin.); be minded towards (+ adv. and dat.) φρονήσω, ἐφρόνησα

Liquid Stem

ἀγγέλλω report, tell ἀγγελῶ, ἤγγειλα, ἤγγελκα, ἤγγελμαι, ἠγγέλθην

αἴρω take up, lift up; remove ἀρῶ, ἦρα, ἦρκα, ἦρμαι, ἤρθην

ἁμαρτάνω miss the mark (+ gen.); fail, be wrong, make a mistake ἁμαρτήσομαι, ἡμάρτησα, 2 aor. ἥμαρτον, ἡμάρτηκα, ἡμάρτημαι, ἡμαρτήθην

ἀποκρίνω separate, set apart; (mid.) answer, reply ἀποκρινῶ, ἀπεκρινάμην, ἀπεκρίθη

ἀποκτείνω kill ἀποκτενῶ, ἀπέκτεινα, ἀπέκτονα

βαίνω walk, come, go βήσομαι, 2 aor. ἔβην, βέβηκα

βάλλω throw, hurl; throw at, hit (acc.) with (dat.) βαλῶ, 2 aor. ἔβαλον, βέβληκα, βέβλημαι, ἐβλήθην

διαφέρω carry in different ways, spread; differ; (impers.) διαφέρει it makes a difference to (+ dat.), διοίσω, 1 aor. διήνεγκα, 2 aor. διήνεγκον, διενήνοχα, διενήνεγμαι

διαφθείρω destroy; corrupt διαφθερῶ, διέφθειρα, διέφθαρκα, διέφθαρμαι, διεφθάρην

ἐθέλω (+ infin.) wish (to); be willing (to) ἐθελήσω, ἠθέλησα, ἠθέληκα

ἐλαύνω drive, set in motion ἐλῶ, ἤλασα, -ελήλακα, ἐλήλαμαι, ἠλάθην

καταλαμβάνω seize, catch up with, arrest, compel καταλήψομαι, κατέλαβον, κατείληφα, κατείλημμαι, κατελήφθην

κρίνω judge, decide, determine κρινῶ, ἔκρινα, κέκρικα, κέκριμαι, ἐκρίθην

λαμβάνω take, grasp, seize; receive, get λήψομαι, ἔλαβον, εἴληφα, εἴλημμαι, ἐλήφθην

λανθάνω escape the notice of (+ acc. and nom. participle), be unknown; (mid. and pass.) forget λήσω, ἔλαθον, λέληθα

μανθάνω learn, ascertain μαθήσομαι, ἔμαθον, μεμάθηκα

μέλλω (+ infin.) think of doing, intend to, be about to μελλήσω, ἐμέλλησα

μένω stay, remain, endure, await μενῶ, ἔμεινα, μεμένηκα

πίνω drink πίομαι, 2 aor. ἔπιον, πέπωκα, -πέπομαι, -επόθην

συμβαίνω meet, come to an agreement, correspond; happen, occur, come to pass; turn out in a certain way (+ adv.), result συμβήσομαι, 2 aor. συνέβην, συμβέβηκα

συμφέρω benefit, be useful or profitable to (+ dat.) συνοίσω, 1 aor. συνήνεγκα; (impers.) συμφέρει it is of use, expedient (+ infin.); τὸ συμφέρον use, profit, advantage

τέμνω cut, cut down, cut to pieces τεμῶ, 2 aor. ἔτεμον, -τέτμηκα, τέτμημαι, ἐτμήθην

τυγχάνω hit, light upon, meet by chance (+ gen.); reach, gain, obtain; happen to be (+ptc.) τεύξομαι, ἔτυχον, τετύχηκα. τέτυγμαι, ἐτύχθην

ὑπολαμβάνω take up, seize; answer, reply; assume, suppose ὑπολήψομαι, ὑπέλαβον, ὑπείληφα, ὑπείλημμαι, ὑπελήφθην

φαίνω bring to light, make appear, make clear; (pass.) come to light, be seen, appear, appear to be (+ ptc. or infin.) φανῶ, ἔφηνα, πέφηνα, πέφασμαι, ἐφάνην

φέρω carry, bring, fetch; carry off or away οἴσω, 1 aor. ἤνεγκα, 2 aor. ἤνεγκον, ἐνήνοχα, ἐνήνεγμαι, ἠνέχθην; φέρε come now, well

χαίρω to be happy, rejoice at (+ dat.), take joy in (+ ptc.) χαιρήσω, κεχάρηκα, κεχάρημαι, ἐχάρην; χαῖρε, (pl.) χαίρετε hello, goodbye

Palatal Stem

ἄγω lead, carry, bring; pass (time) ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ἦχα, ἦγμαι, ἤχθην

ἀπαλλάσσω set free, release, deliver ἀπαλλάξω, ἀπήλλαξα, ἀπήλλαχα, ἀπήλλαγμαι, ἀπηλλάχθην or ἀπηλλάγην

ἀποθνῄσκω die ἀποθανοῦμαι, 2 aor. ἀπέθανον, ἀποτέθνηκα

ἄρχω begin (+ gen.); lead, rule, govern (+ gen.) ἄρξω, ἦρξα, ἦργμαι, ἤρχθην

γιγνώσκω come to know, learn; judge, think, or determine that (+ acc. and infin.) γνώσομαι, ἔγνων, ἔγνωκα, ἔγνωσμαι, ἐγνώσθην

διδάσκω teach διδάξω, ἐδίδαξα, δεδίδαχα, δεδίδαγμαι, ἐδιδάχθην

διώκω pursue διώξομαι, ἐδίωξα, δεδίωχα, ἐδιώχθην

εὑρίσκω find (out), discover, devise εὑρήσω, 2 aor. ηὗρον or εὗρον, ηὕρηκα or εὕρηκα, εὕρημαι, εὑρέθην

ἔχω have, hold, keep ἕξω or σχήσω, 2 aor. ἔσχον, ἔσχηκα, impf. εἶχον

ἥκω I have come, I am present ἥξω, pf. ἧκα

θνήσκω to die, be dying θανοῦμαι, 2 aor. -έθανον, τέθνηκα

λέγω say, speak (of), recount; pick up, collect, count ἐρῶ, εἶπον, εἴρηκα, λέλεγμαι, ἐλέχθην and ἐρρήθην

μιμνήσκω remind; (in pf. mid.) remember -μνήσω, -έμνησα, pf. μέμνημαι, ἐμνήσθην

παρέχω provide παρέξω, παρέσχον, παρέσχηκα, impf. παρεῖχον

πάσχω suffer, experience, be affected in a certain way (+ adv.) πείσομαι, ἔπαθον, πέπονθα

πράσσω do, achieve, accomplish; do or fare in a certain way (+ adv.) πράξω, ἔπραξα, πέπραχα, πέπραγμαι, ἐπράχθην

τάσσω arrange, put in order τάξω, ἔταξα, τέταχα, τέταγμαι, ἐτάχθην

ὑπάρχω exist, be, belong to ὑπάρξω, ὑπῆρξα, ὑπῆργμαι, ὑπήρχθην; τὰ ὑπάρχοντα existing circumstances

φεύγω flee, run away, avoid, shun φεύξομαι, ἔφυγον, πέφευγα

φυλάσσω watch, guard, defend; (mid.) be on one’s guard against (+ acc.) φυλάξω, ἐφύλαξα, πεφύλαχα, πεφύλαγμαι, ἐφυλάχθην

Dental Stem

δέδοικα (pf. in pres. sense) fear δείσομαι, ἔδεισα

θαυμάζω to be in awe of, be astonished at θαυμάσομαι, ἐθαύμασα, τεθαύμακα, τεθαύμασμαι, ἐθαυμάσθην

κατασκευάζω equip, furnish, make ready κατασκευάσω, κατεσκεύασα

κομίζω take care of, provide for κομιῶ, ἐκόμισα, κεκόμικα, κεκόμισμαι, ἐκομίσθην

νομίζω think, believe that (+ acc. and infin.); hold as a custom, be accustomed to (+ infin.) νομιῶ, ἐνόμισα, νενόμικα, νενόμισμαι, ἐνομίσθην

ὀνομάζω call by name ὀνομάσω, ὠνόμασα, ὠνόμακα, ὠνόμασμαι, ὠνομάσθην

παρασκευάζω get ready, prepare, provide παρασκευάσω, παρεσκεύασα

πείθω persuade, win over; (mid. and pass.) obey, believe in, trust in (+ dat.) πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέποιθα, πέπεισμαι, ἐπείσθην

πίπτω fall, fall down πεσοῦμαι, ἔπεσον, πέπτωκα

σῴζω save σώσω, ἔσωσα, σέσωκα, ἐσώθην

τίκτω beget, give birth to, produce τέξω or τέξομαι, ἔτεκον, τέτοκα, τέτεγμαι, ἐτέχθην

φράζω tell, declare; (mid. and pass.) think (about) φράσω, ἔφρασα, πέφρακα, πέφρασμαι, ἐφράσθην

Labial Stem

βλέπω see, look (at) βλέψομαι, ἔβλεψα

γράφω write γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα, γέγραμμαι, ἐγράφην

λείπω leave, abandon λείψω, ἔλιπον, λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι, ἐλείφθην

πέμπω send πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα, πέπεμμαι, ἐπέμφθην

τρέπω turn, direct towards a thing; put to flight, defeat; (pass.) turn one’s steps in a certain direction, go τρέψω, ἔτρεψα, τέτροφα, ἐτράπην

τρέφω nourish, feed, support, maintain; rear, educate θρέψω, ἔθρεψα, τέθραμμαι, ἐτράφην

Deponent Verbs

αἰσθάνομαι perceive, understand, hear, learn αἰσθήσομαι, 2 aor. ᾐσθόμην, ᾔσθημαι

ἁλίσκομαι to be taken, conquered (act. supplied by αἱρέω) ἁλώσομαι, 2 aor. ἑάλων, ἑάλωκα

ἀφικνέομαι come to, arrive at ἀφίξομαι, 2 aor. ἀφικόμην, ἀφῖγμαι

βούλομαι (+ infin.) will, wish (to); be willing (to) βουλήσομαι, βεβούλημαι, ἐβουλήθην; ὁ βουλόμενος anyone who likes

γίγνομαι become; be born; happen, be γενήσομαι, 2 aor. ἐγενόμην, γέγονα, γεγένημαι, ἐγενήθην

δέχομαι take, accept; welcome, entertain δέξομαι, ἐδεξάμην, δέδεγμαι, -εδέχθην

δύναμαι (+ infin.) to be able (to), be strong enough (to) δυνήσομαι, ἐδυνήθην, δεδύνημαι

ἕπομαι follow ἕψομαι, 2 aor. ἑσπόμην

ἐργάζομαι work, labor ἐργάσομαι, εἰργασάμην, εἴργασμαι

ἔρομαι ask, ask one about (+ double acc.) ἐρήσομαι, 2 aor.ἠρόμην

ἔρχομαι come, go, fut. εἶμι or ἐλεύσομαι, 2 aor. ἦλθον, ἐλήλυθα

ἡγέομαι lead; consider ἡγήσομαι, ἡγησάμην, ἥγημαι

κτάομαι get, gain, acquire κτήσομαι, ἐκτησάμην, κέκτημαι

μάχομαι fight μαχοῦμαι, ἐμαχεσάμην, μεμάχημαι

οἴομαι, οἶμαι think, suppose, imagine (+ acc. and infin.) ᾠήθην impf. ᾤμην

πυνθάνομαι learn, hear, inquire concerning (+ gen.) πεύσομαι, 2 aor. ἐπυθόμην, πέπυσμαι

χράομαι use, experience, suffer (+ dat.); treat someone in a certain way (+ dat. and adv.) χρήσομαι, ἐχρησάμην, κέχρημαι, ἐχρήσθην

-ΜΙ Verbs

ἀποδίδωμι give back; render; allow; (mid.) sell ἀποδώσω, ἀπέδωκα, ἀποδέδωκα, ἀποδέδομαι, ἀπεδόθην

ἀπόλλυμι kill, destroy; (mid.) perish, die ἀπολῶ, ἀπώλεσα, 2 aor. mid. ἀπωλόμην, pf. ἀπολώλεκα (“I have utterly destroyed”) or ἀπόλωλα (“I am undone”)

send away, let go; let alone, neglect ἀφήσω, ἀφῆκα, ἀφεῖκα, ἀφεῖμαι, ἀφείθην

δείκνυμι show, point out δείξω, ἔδειξα, δέδειχα, δέδειγμαι, ἐδείχθην

δίδωμι give, grant, offer δώσω, ἔδωκα, δέδωκα, δέδομαι, ἐδόθην

ἵημι put in motion, let go, shoot; (mid.) hasten, rush ἥσω, ἧκα, εἷκα, εἷμαι, εἵθην

ἵστημι make to stand, set στήσω will set, ἔστησα set, caused to stand, 2 aor. ἔστην stood, ἕστηκα stand, plup. εἱστήκη stood, ἐστάθην stood

καθίστημι set down, establish; bring into a certain state, render καταστήσω, κατέστησα, κατέστην, καθέστηκα, plupf. καθειστήκη, κατεστάθην

μίγνυμι mix, mingle μείξω, ἔμειξα, μέμειγμαι, ἐμείχθην

παραδίδωμι transmit, hand over, surrender παραδώσω, παρέδωκα, παραδέδωκα, παραδέδομαι, παρεδόθην

προστίθημι add; (med.) join προσθήσω, προσέθηκα, προστέθηκα, προστέθειμαι (but commonly προσκεῖμαι instead), προσετέθην

τίθημι to put, place; establish, ordain, institute; put in a certain state θήσω, ἔθηκα, τέθηκα, τέθειμαι (but usu. κεῖμαι instead), ἐτέθην

φημί say, assert, declare φήσω, impf. ἔφην; οὐ φημί deny, refuse, say that...not

Impersonal Verbs

δεῖ it is necessary, one must, one ought (+ acc. and infin.) δεήσει, impf. ἔδει

χρή it is necessary, it is fated, one ought (+ infin. or + acc. and infin.) impf. χρῆν or ἐχρῆν, infin. χρῆναι

Irregular Verbs

εἶδον I saw 2 aor. of ὁράω, act. infin. ἰδεῖν, mid. ἰδέσθαι

εἶμι I will go, fut. of ἔρχομαι, infin. ἰέναι, ptc. ἰών, ἰοῦσα, ἰόν

εἰμί be, exist ἔσομαι, impf. ἦν, infin. εἶναι

εἶπον I said, I spoke 2 aor. → λέγω, φημί

ἔοικα be like, look like (+ dat.); seem; befit; ptc. εἰκώς; τὸ εἰκός, that which is likely, plausible

κεῖμαι lie, be situated, be laid up in store, be set up, be established or ordained (used as pf. pass. of τίθημι), fut. κείσομαι

οἶδα to know (pf. in pres. sense); to know how to (+ infin.), infin. εἰδέναι, imper. ἴσθι, plupf. used as impf. ᾔδειν

πάρειμι be present, be ready or at hand; (impers.) πάρεστί μοι it depends on me, it is in my power; τὰ παρόντα the present circumstances; τὸ παρόν just now

Nouns

1st Declension

Nouns in -η –ης

ἀνάγκη –ης, ἡ necessity

ἀρετή –ῆς, ἡ goodness, excellence; virtue; valor, bravery

ἀρχή –ῆς, ἡ beginning, origin; rule, empire, realm; magistracy

βουλή –ῆς, ἡ will, determination; counsel, piece of advice; council of elders

γῆ γῆς, ἡ earth

γνώμη –ης, ἡ thought, intelligence, opinion, purpose

γραφή –ῆς, ἡ a drawing, painting, writing; indictment

δίκη –ης, ἡ justice, lawsuit, trial, penalty

εἰρήνη –ης, ἡ peace

ἐπιστήμη –ης, ἡ knowledge, understanding, skill

ἡδονή –ῆς, ἡ pleasure, enjoyment

κεφαλή –ῆς, ἡ head

μάχη –ης, ἡ battle

νίκη –ης, ἡ victory

τέχνη –ης, ἡ art, skill, craft

τιμή –ῆς, ἡ honor, esteem; price, value; office, magistracy

τροφή –ῆς, ἡ nourishment, food

τύχη –ης, ἡ luck, fortune (good or bad), fate, chance

φωνή –ῆς, ἡ sound, voice

ψυχή –ῆς, ἡ breath, life, soul

Nouns in -α –ας

αἰτία –ας, ἡ cause, origin; charge, accusation

ἀλήθεια –ας, ἡ truth

διαφορά –ᾶς, ἡ difference, disagreement

ἡμέρα –ας, ἡ day

οἰκία –ας, ἡ building, house, dwelling

οὐσία –ας, ἡ substance, property; essence

πολιτεία –ας, ἡ constitution, citizenship, republic

στρατιά –ᾶς, ἡ army

συμφορά –ᾶς, ἡ event, circumstance, misfortune

σωτηρία σωτηρίας, ἡ safety, deliverance

χώρα χώρας, ἡ land; place

Nouns in -α –ης

γλῶσσα –ης, ἡ tongue; language

δόξα –ης, ἡ opinion, judgment; reputation, honor, glory

θάλασσα –ης, ἡ the sea

Nouns in –ης –ου

δεσπότης –ου, ὁ master (of the household); absolute ruler

ποιητής –οῦ, ὁ creator, poet

στρατιώτης –ου, ὁ soldier

2nd Declension Nouns

Nouns in –ος –ου

ἀδελφός –οῦ, ὁ brother

ἄνθρωπος –ου, ὁ/ἡ human being

ἀριθμός –οῦ, ὁ number

βίος –ου, ὁ life

δῆμος –ου, ὁ country district (opp. πόλις); the (common) people

δοῦλος –ου, ὁ slave

ἥλιος –ου, ὁ sun

θάνατος –ου, ὁ death

θεός –οῦ, ὁ, ἡ god, goddess

θυμός –οῦ, ὁ life, spirit; soul, heart, mind

ἵππος –ου, ὁ horse

καιρός –οῦ, ὁ the right time

κίνδυνος –ου, ὁ danger

κόσμος –ου, ὁ order; ornament, decoration, adornment; world, universe

κύκλος –ου, ὁ circle, ring, orb, disc, circular motion

κύριος –ου, ὁ lord, master

λαός –οῦ, ὁ the people, folk

λίθος –ου, ὁ stone

λόγος –ου, ὁ word, speech, discourse; thought, reason, account

ναός ναοῦ (Att. νεώς), ὁ temple

νῆσος –ου, ἡ island

νόμος –ου, ὁ custom, tradition, law

νόσος –ου, ὁ disease, sickness

νοῦς, (νόος), νοῦ (νόου), ὁ mind, perception, sense

ξένος –ου, ὁ guest-friend; foreigner, stranger

ὁδός –οῦ, ἡ road, way, path

οἶκος –ου, ὁ house, home, family

οὐρανός –οῦ, ὁ sky, heaven

ὀφθαλμός –οῦ, ὁ eye

πόλεμος –ου ὁ war

πόνος –ου, ὁ work, labor; stress, trouble, pain

ποταμός –οῦ, ὁ river, stream

στρατηγός –οῦ, ὁ leader of an army, commander, general

στρατός –οῦ, ὁ army

τόπος –ου, ὁ place; topic

τρόπος –ου, ὁ way, manner, fashion; way of life, habit, custom

υἱός –οῦ, ὁ son

φόβος –ου, ὁ panic, fear, flight

χρόνος –ου, ὁ time

Nouns in –ον –ου

ἀργύριον –ου, τό money

ἔργον –ου, τό work, achievement, exploit

ζῷον –ου, τό living being, animal

ὅπλον –ου, τό weapon, tool, implement (mostly pl.)

πρόσωπον –ου, τό face, mask, person

σημεῖον –ου, τό sign, signal, mark

στάδιον σταδίου, τό (pl. στάδια and στάδιοι) stadion or stade, the longest Greek unit of linear measure, about 185 meters

τέκνον –ου, τό child

χωρίον χωρίου, τό place, spot, district

3rd Declension

Nouns in -ων -ωνος/ονος

ἀγών –ῶνος, ὁ contest

δαίμων –ονος, ὁ, ἡ spirit, god, demon

ἡγεμών ἡγεμόνος, ὁ guide, leader, commander

Nouns in -ις –εως

δύναμις –εως, ἡ power, strength, ability

πίστις –εως, ἡ trust in others, faith; that which gives confidence, assurance, pledge, guarantee

πόλις –εως, ἡ city, city-state

πρᾶξις –εως, ἡ action, transaction, business

τάξις –εως, ἡ arrangement, order; military unit

φύσις –εως, ἡ nature; (of the mind) one’s nature or disposition; regular order of nature

Nouns in -ος –ους

γένος –ους, τό race, family; kind, class

ἔθνος –ους, τό nation

εἶδος –ους, τό form, shape, figure; class, kind, sort

μέρος –ους, τό part, share

ὄρος –ους, τό mountain, hill

πάθος –ους, τό incident, accident, misfortune, experience; passion, emotion; state, condition

πλῆθος πλήθους, τό mass, throng, crowd

τεῖχος –ους, τό wall

τέλος –ους, τό end, fulfillment, achievement

Nouns in -μα -ματος

αἷμα –ατος, τό blood

γράμμα –ατος, τό letter, written character; (pl.) piece of writing, document(s)

ὄνομα –ατος, τό name; fame

πνεῦμα –ατος, τό wind, breath, spirit

πρᾶγμα –ατος, τό thing; (pl.) circumstances, affairs, business

στόμα –ατος, τό mouth, face, opening

σχῆμα –ατος, τό form, figure, appearance, character

σῶμα –ατος, τό body

χρῆμα –ατος, τό thing, matter; (more commonly in pl.) goods or property, esp. money

Nouns in -ηρ -ρος

ἀνήρ ἀνδρός, ὁ man, husband

θυγάτηρ θυγατρός, ἡ daughter

μήτηρ μητρός, ἡ mother

πατήρ πατρός, ὁ father

Nouns in -ις -ιδος/ιτος

ἐλπίς –ίδος, ἡ hope; expectation

παῖς παιδός, ὁ/ἡ son, daughter, child; slave

πατρίς –ίδος, ἡ fatherland

χάρις -ιτος, ἡ splendor, honor, glory; favor, goodwill, gratitude, thanks

Nouns in -υς –εως

βασιλεύς βασιλέως, ὁ king

ἱππεύς ἱππέως, ὁ horseman, rider, charioteer

ναῦς νεώς, ἡ ship

πρέσβυς πρέσβεως, ὁ old man; (pl.) ambassadors

Nouns in -ρ -ρος

πῦρ πυρός, τό fire

χείρ χειρός, ἡ hand

Nouns in -ς/ξ -τος

νύξ νυκτός, ἡ night

φῶς φωτός, τό light, daylight

Unique

βοῦς βοός, ὁ/ἡ bull, ox, cow

γυνή γυναικός, ἡ woman

εἰκός εἰκότος, τό likelihood, probability

μάρτυς μάρτυρος, ὁ/ἡ witness

πούς ποδός, ὁ foot

ὕδωρ ὕδατος, τό water

Adjectives

Adjectives in -ος –η –ον

ἀγαθός –ή –όν good, virtuous, brave, noble

ἄλλος –η –ο other; ἄλλως otherwise

ἄριστος –η –ον best, noblest (superl. of ἀγαθός)

δεινός –ή –όν awesome, terrible; clever, clever at (+ infin.)

δῆλος –η –ον visible, clear, manifest

δυνατός –ή –όν strong, powerful, able

ἕκαστος –η –ον each

ἐκεῖνος –η –ο that person or thing; ἐκεῖνος…οὗτος the former…the latter

ἱκανός –ή –όν sufficient, enough; competent, able to (+ infin.)

ἴσος –η –ον equal, the same as (+ dat.); (adv.) ἴσως equally, probably, perhaps

κακός –ή –όν bad, wicked, cowardly

καλός –ή –όν beautiful, noble, honorable

κοινός –ή –όν common, shared, mutual

λοιπός –ή –όν rest, remaining, rest-of-the

μέσος –η –ον middle, in the middle, moderate; τὸ μέσον midst

μόνος –η –ον alone, single; μόνον (adv.) only

ὀλίγος –η –ον little, small, few

ὅλος –η –ον whole, entire, complete

ὀρθός –ή –όν upright, straight, true, regular

ὅσος –η –ον however much; as great as; (in pl.) as many as; ὅσον (adv.) as much as

πλεῖστος –η –ον most, greatest, largest (→ πολύς)

πρῶτος –η –ον first, foremost, earliest; (adv.) τὸ πρῶτον in the first place

σοφός –ή –όν wise, clever, skilled

τοσοῦτος –αύτη –οῦτο(ν) so large, so much

φίλος –η –ον beloved, dear; friendly

χαλεπός –ή –όν difficult, troublesome

χρήσιμος χρησίμη χρήσιμον useful, serviceable

Adjectives in -ος –α –ον

αἰσχρός –ά –όν ugly, shameful, disgraceful

αἴτιος –α –ον responsible, guilty

ἀμφότερος –α –ον both

ἄξιος –α –ον worthy, deserving

δίκαιος –α –ον just

ἑκάτερος –α –ον each (of two)

ἐλεύθερος –α –ον free, independent

ἐναντίος –α –ον opposite, facing; opposing

ἕτερος –α –ον other

ἐχθρός –ά –όν hated, hateful; hostile to (+ dat.)

ἡμέτερος –α –ον our

θεῖος –α –ον divine

ἴδιος –α –ον one’s own; peculiar, separate, distinct

ἱερός –ά –όν holy, venerated, divine

ἰσχυρός –ά –όν strong

λαμπρός –ά –όν bright, brilliant; well-known, illustrious

μακρός –ά –όν long, tall, large, long-lasting

μικρός –ά –όν small, little, short

μυρίος –α –ον countless; μύριοι 10,000; μυριάς -άδος ἡ 10,000, a countless amount

νέος –α –ον young, new, fresh

οἰκεῖος –α –ον domestic, of the house; one’s own; fitting, suitable

οἷος –α –ον such as, of what sort, like, (exclam.) what a!, how! ; οἷός τε (+ infin.) fit or able to; οἷόν τε (+ infin.) it is possible to

ὅμοιος –α –ον like, resembling (+ dat.)

παλαιός –ά –όν old, ancient

ποῖος –α –ον what sort of?

πολέμιος –α –ον hostile; οἱ πολέμιοι the enemy

πονηρός –ά –όν worthless, bad, wicked

πότερος –α –ον which of the two? (adv.) πότερον whether

πρότερος –α –ον before, earlier; τὸ πρότερον previously, before

ῥᾴδιος –α –ον easy

τοιόσδε τοιάδε τοιόνδε such as this, such as follows

ὑμέτερος –α –ον your, yours (pl.; σός = sg.)

ὕστερος –α –ον coming after, following (+ gen.); next, later; (adv.) ὕστερον afterwards

φανερός –ά –όν clear, evident

χαλκοῦς ῆ οῦν of copper or bronze

Adjectives in -ύς –εῖα –ύ

βαρύς –εῖα –ύ heavy, grievous, tiresome

βραχύς –εῖα –ύ brief, short

εὐθύς –εῖα –ύ straight, direct; (adv.) immediately

ἡδύς –εῖα –ύ sweet, pleasant

ὀξύς –εῖα –ύ sharp, keen, shrill, pungent

ταχύς –εῖα –ύ quick, fast; (adv.) τάχα quickly; perhaps

Adjectives in -ος –ον

ἄδικος –ον unjust

ἀδύνατος –ον impossible; powerless

βάρβαρος –ον barbarous, not Greek, foreign

σύμμαχος –ον allied with (+ dat. of accompaniment or means); οἱ σύμμαχοι allies

Adjectives in -ων–ον

ἀμείνων –ον better, abler, stronger, braver

βελτίων –ον better (comp. of ἀγαθός)

ἐλάσσων –ον smaller, less (comp. of μικρός)

ἥσσων –ον less, weaker (comp. of κακός or μικρός)

κρείσσων –ον stronger, mightier; better, more excellent (comp. of ἀγαθός)

χείρων –ονος ὁ/ἡ worse, inferior (comp. of κακός)

Adjectives in –ής –ές

ἀληθής –ές true

σαφής –ές clear

Adjectives in –ας –ασα –αν

ἅπας ἅπασα ἅπαν all together

πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν every, all; whole (with article)

Articular Adjectives

ὁ ἡ τό the

τοιοῦτος τοιαύτη τοιοῦτο such as this

τοσοῦτος –αύτη –οῦτο(ν) so large, so much

Unique

μέγας μεγάλη μέγα big, great, powerful

πλείων πλέων more, larger; (adv.) πλέον more, rather (comp. of πολύς)

πολύς πολλή πολύ much, many; ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολύ for the most part

προσήκων –ουςα –ον belonging to, befitting; οἱ προσήκοντες relatives; τὰ προσήκoντα duties

Pronouns

ἀλλήλων (oblique cases only) one another, each other

αὐτός –ή –ό him- her- itself etc. (for emphasis); the same (with article); him, her, it etc. (oblique cases only)

ἑαυτοῦ –ῆς –οῦ him- her- itself etc. (reflex. pron.)

ἐγώ, ἐμοῦ I 

ἐμός –ή –όν my, mine

ἡμεῖς ἡμῶν we

μηδείς μηδεμία μηδέν no one, nothing

ὅδε ἥδε τόδε this

ὅς ἥ ὅ who, which, that

ὅσπερ ἥπερ ὅπερ the very one who, the very thing which

ὅστις ἥτις ὅ τι anyone who, anything which; (in indir. quest.) who, which, what

οὐδείς οὐδεμία οὐδέν no one, nothing

οὗτος αὕτη τοῦτο this, these; μετὰ ταῦτα after this

σός –ή –όν your, yours (sg.)

σύ σοῦ, you (sg.)

τίς τί who? what? which? (interrog. pron./adj.)

τις τι someone, something, anyone, anything, some, any (enclitic indef. pron./adj.) 

ὑμεῖς ὑμῶν you (pl.)

ὑμέτερος -α -ον your, yours (pl.)

Adverbs

ἀεί always

ἅμα at the same time; together with (+ dat.)

ἀμφί about, around

ἄνω up, upwards

ἁπλῶς simply, singly, in one way

αὖ, αὖθις back (again); moreover; on the other hand

αὐτίκα at once, immediately

εἶτα then, next

ἐκεῖ there

ἔνθα there

ἐνταῦθα here, there

ἔξω outside; except

ἐπεί after, since, when

ἔπειτα then, next

ἔτι still, yet

εὖ well

ἦ truly (emphasizes what follows)

ἤδη already, now (of the immediate past); presently (of the immediate future)

καίτοι and indeed, and yet

μάλα very, very much

μάλιστα most, most of all; (in replies) certainly

μᾶλλον more, rather; μᾶλλον...ἤ rather than

μεταξύ between

μή not (μή marks the negative as subjective or conditional); εἰ μή if not, except

μηδέ and not

ναί indeed, yes (used in strong affirmation)

νῦν, νυνί now

ὅθεν from where, whence

ὅμως nevertheless, all the same

ὅπου where, wherever

ὅπως how, as; so that (+ subj. or opt.)

ὅταν whenever (+ subj.) = ὄτε + ἄν

ὅτε when, whenever (+ indic. or opt.)

οὐ οὐκ οὐχ not (with indicative verbs)

οὐκέτι no longer, no more

οὖν therefore, accordingly; at any rate

οὕτως in this way

πάλιν back, backwards

πάντως altogether, in all ways; at any rate

πάνυ altogether, entirely

-περ particle suffixed to pronouns and other particles for emphasis

πολλάκις often

ποτε (enclitic) at some time, once; πότε when?

που (enclitic) somewhere; I suppose, perhaps (to qualify an assertion); ποῦ, where?

πρίν before, formerly; (conj.) before, until

πως (enclitic) somehow, in some way, in any way; πῶς how?

τότε then, at that time; οἱ τότε the men of that time (opp. οἱ νῦν)

χωρίς separately, apart; (+ gen.) without, separate from

ὧδε thus, in this way; hither, here

ὥσπερ just as, as if

ὥστε (introducing natural or actual result clause) so as, so that, (with the result) that

Prepositions

ἀνά up, on; throughout

ἄνευ without (+ gen.)

ἀντί opposite (+ gen.)

ἀπό from (+ gen.)

διά through, during (+ gen.); because of (+ acc.)

εἰς into, to, towards (+ acc.)

ἐκ, ἐξ from, out of (+ gen.)

ἐν in, among (+ dat.)

ἕνεκα because of, for the sake of (+ gen.)

ἐπί at (+ gen.); on (+ dat.); on to, against (+ acc.)

ἤ or; than (after a comparative); ἤ...ἤ either...or

κατά down, down (from or along), throughout, according to; κατὰ γῆν by land; κατὰ φύσιν in accordance with nature; κατ’ ἔθνη by nations; καθ᾿ἕνα one by one.)

μετά with (+ gen.); after (+ acc.)

μέχρι (+ gen.) until, as far as

παρά from (+ gen.); beside (+ dat.); to, to the side of, contrary to (+ acc.)

περί around, about; concerning (+ gen.)

πλήν except (+ gen.); πλὴν ὅτι except that

πρό before, in front of (+ gen.)

πρός from the side of, in the presence of (+ gen.); near, at, in addition to (+ dat.); to, towards, in relation to (+ acc.)

σύν with (+ dat. of accompaniment or means)

ὑπέρ for (+gen), beyond (+ acc.)

ὑπό under (+ gen., dat.); by (+ gen. of personal agent); down under (+ acc.)

Conjunctions

ἀλλά but

γάρ for, because

εἰ, if (+ indic. or opt.) εἴπερ if indeed

εἴτε either…or

ἵνα in order that (conj. + subj. or opt.); where (rel. adv. + indic.)

καί and, also, even; καί...καί both...and

κἄν = καὶ ἄν even if (+ subj.)

μέντοι however; of course

μήτε and not; μήτε...μήτε neither...nor

ὅτι because, that; (with superl.) as...as possible

οὐκοῦν surely then (inviting assent to an inference)

οὔτε and not; οὔτε...οὔτε neither...nor

τε and; τε…τε both…and

τοίνυν therefore, accordingly (inferential); further, moreover (resumptive)

ὡς as, since; (introducing purpose clause) so that (+ subj./opt.); (introducing indir. statement) that

Particles

ἄν particle that marks verbs as potential (with optative), or generalizing (with subjunctive)

ἆρα particle introducing a question

ἄρα therefore, then (drawing an inference)

γε (enclitic particle) indeed; at least, at any rate

δέ and; but

δή surely, really, now, in fact, indeed (gives greater exactness)

ἐάν (= εἰ + ἄν) if (+ subj.)

ἕως until; while, so long as

μέν...δέ on the one hand...on the other hand; μέν (by itself) indeed

μήν [emphasizes preceding particle]

οὐδέ and not, but not, nor; οὐδέ...οὐδέ not even...nor yet

ὦ oh! ; unemphatic when with the vocative