Vergil, Aeneid XI 868-895

Prima fugit domina amissa leuis ala Camillae,

turbati fugiunt Rutuli, fugit acer Atinas,

disiectique duces desolatique manipli870

tuta petunt et equis auersi ad moenia tendunt.

nec quisquam instantis Teucros letumque ferentis

sustentare ualet telis aut sistere contra,

sed laxos referunt umeris languentibus arcus,

quadripedumque putrem cursu quatit ungula campum.875

uoluitur ad muros caligine turbidus atra

puluis, et e speculis percussae pectora matres

femineum clamorem ad caeli sidera tollunt.

qui cursu portas primi inrupere patentis,

hos inimica super mixto premit agmine turba,880

nec miseram effugiunt mortem, sed limine in ipso,

moenibus in patriis atque inter tuta domorum

confixi exspirant animas. pars claudere portas,

nec sociis aperire uiam nec moenibus audent

accipere orantis, oriturque miserrima caedes885

defendentum armis aditus inque arma ruentum.

exclusi ante oculos lacrimantumque ora parentum

pars in praecipitis fossas urgente ruina

uoluitur, immissis pars caeca et concita frenis

arietat in portas et duros obice postis.890

ipsae de muris summo certamine matres

(monstrat amor uerus patriae, ut uidere Camillam)

tela manu trepidae iaciunt ac robore duro

stipitibus ferrum sudibusque imitantur obustis

praecipites, primaeque mori pro moenibus ardent.895


āla, ae, f.: a wing, 1.301; the feather of an arrow, 9.578; the wing of an army; cavalry, 11.730; troop, battalion, 11.604; horsemen, mounted huntsmen, 4.121.

Camilla, ae, f.: a Volscian heroine, ally of Turnus, 7.803, et al.

Rutulī, ōrum, m.: the Rutulians, an ancient tribe of Latium dwelling south of the Tiber, 1.266, et al.

Atīnas, ātis, m.: Atinas, a Latin chief, 12.661.

dīsiciō, iēcī, iectus, 3, a.: to throw, cast asunder; overthrow, demolish, 8.355; scatter, disperse, 1.70; cleave, 12.308. (dis- and iaciō)

dēsōlō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to make solitary, lay waste, 11.367; leave without guidance, deprive of commanders, leave in disorder, 11.870. (dē and sōlus)

manīplus, ī, m.: a handful, a bundle, bunch; the standard or ensign of a company of soldiers, bearing on the top originally a bundle of hay; hence, (meton.), a troop, a company, 11.463, et al. (manus and pleō)

āvertō, vertī, versus, 3, a.: to turn (anything) away from, followed by an abl. with or without a prep., 1.38, et al.; turn or drive away, 1.472, et al.; transfer, with acc. of place, 4.106; drive away, end, 4.547; neut. by omission of se, to turn away, 1.402; (pass.), avertī, as middle or dep., with acc., to be averse to; to shun, loathe.

nec or neque: (adv. and conj.), and not; neither, nor, 1.643, et al.; in prohibition, 3.394, et al.; neque (nec) — neque (nec), neither — nor, 5.21, et al.; nec — et, or -que, may be rendered neither — nor, 12.801; 2.534; nec nōn, and also, nor less, 6.183; nec nōn et, and also, 1.707.

īnstō, stitī, 1, n.: to stand on or upon; w. dat., acc., inf., or alone; w. dat., to stand on, 11.529; stand or hang over, 10.196; (w. acc.), to work at, ply work upon, 8.834; (w. inf.), urge on, press on, 1.423; persist, 10.118; (alone), to follow up, press on; pursue, 1.468; struggle, 12.783; be near at hand, approach, threaten, 12.916; to be urgent, important, incumbent, 4.115.

Teucrī, ōrum, m.: the Trojans, descendants of Teucer, 1.38, et al.; adj., Teucrian, Trojan, 9.779, et al. (Teucer)

lētum, ī, n.: death, destruction, 2.134, et al. (cf. dēleō)

sustentō, āvī, ātus, 1, intens. a.: to uphold; hold up, support, sustain, 10.339; poise, 10.304; second, support, 11.224; maintain, 12.662; bear up against, withstand, 11.873. (sustineō)

sistō, stitī, status, 3, a. and n.: to cause to stand, put, set, place, w. abl. of place, 2.245, et al.; place before one, bring, 4.634; fix, plant, 10.323; stop, 12.355; arrest, stay, 6.465; support, sustain, maintain, 6.858; set, place, 6.676; n., stand still, to stop, remain, abide, 3.7; stand in fight, 11.873.

contrā: (prep. and adv.; prep. w. acc.), over against; opposite to, 1.13; against, 5.370; to, 9.280; on the contrary, 12.779; on the other hand, in reply, 1.76.

laxus, a, um: (adj.), loose; disjointed, unfastened, gaping, open, 1.122; slack, loosened, free, 1.63; unbent, 11.874.

umerus, ī, m.: the upper bone of the arm; the shoulder, 1.501, and freq.

langueō, uī, 2, n.: to be faint, to languish, grow feeble; p., languēns, entis, of the sea, 10.289; of flowers, drooping, 11.69.

arcus, ūs, m.: a bow, 5.500, et al.; the rainbow, 5.88.

quadrupēs, edis: adj. (quattuor and pēs), four-footed; subst., c., a quadruped, animal, beast, 3.542; courser, steed, 11.875.

puter, pūtris, e: adj. (puteō, to be foul-smelling), fetid, foul-smelling; putrid, crumbling, dusty, 8.596.

quatiō, no perf., quassus, 3, a.: to shake, freq.; brandish, 11.767; flap, 3.226; shatter, 2.611; make tremble, 5.200; thrill, penetrate, 3.30; ransack, beat up, search, scour, 11.513; torment, 6.571; assault, 9.608; spur, 12.338.

ungula, ae, f.: a hoof, 8.596. (unguis)

volvō, volvī, volūtus, 3, a.: to roll, 1.86; roll along or down, 1.101; roll or cast up, 3.206; toss, hurl, 12.906; roll over, roll in the dust, 12.329; cast, hurl down, 1.116; 9.512; roll, wheel, 1.163; of books, open, unroll, 1.262; of the Fates, fix the circle of events, decree, ordain, dispose, 1.22; 3.376; of the mind, revolve, meditate, reflect upon, 1.305; pass, continue, live through, experience, endure, suffer, 1.9; rotam volvere, to complete a cycle, period; (pass.), volvī, roll over, roll, 10.590; turn or wind about, 7.350; to be shed, to flow, 4.449; roll on, revolve, 1.269.

cālīgō, inis, f.: mist, fog, 3.203; misty, obscurity; darkness, dimness, obscurity, 6.267; smoke, 11.187; cloud of dust, 9.36; blinding dust, 12.466.

turbidus, a, um: adj. (turbō), confused; mingled, foul, 6.296; dismal, dark, 6.534; whirling, 5.696; of the mind, sad, troubled, 4.353; startled, in alarm, 11.814; furious, 11.742.

āter, tra, trum: (adj.), black; dark, gloomy, 1.60, et al.; smoky, lurid, 7.456; 4.384; clotted, dark, 3.622; soiled, blackened, 2.272; (fig.), sad, fatal, 6.429; venomous, deadly; of the odor of smoke, 12.591.

pulvis, eris, m., rarely f.: dust, 2.273; soil, ground, earth; dusty plain, 7.163.

specula, ae, f.: a lookout; watch-tower, 4.586; eminence, hill, 3.239; a height, 11.526. (speciō, look)

percutiō, cussī, cussus, 3, a.: to smite through; strike, smite, 4.589; p., percussus, a, um, struck, smitten, 7.503; of the effect of sound, reverberating, echoing, penetrated, filled, 1.513; 8.121. (per and quatiō)

fēmineus, a, um: adj. (fēmina), pertaining to women; female, 9.142; a woman’s, of a woman, 2.584; of women, 4.667; fit for a woman, 12.53.

inrumpō, rūpī, ruptus, 3, n. and a.: to burst; w. acc., rush into, rush through, 11.879; w. dat., burst into, 6.528.

super: (adv.), above, 4.684, et al.; above, from above, 10.384; moreover, 4.606; besides, 1.29; more than enough, 2.642; remaining, surviving, left (with ellipsis of esse), 3.489, et al.; still (or above), 4.684; of time, in, during, 9.61.

effugiō, fūgī, 3, n. and a.: to flee forth or away; glide away, 2.226; get off, escape; speed along, 5.151; pass swiftly from, flee from, escape from, 2.793; 3.272; escape, 3.653. (ex and fugiō)

patrius, a, um: adj. (pater), pertaining to one's father or ancestors; a father's, 2.658; paternal, natural to a father, 1.643; exacted by a father, 7.766; due to, felt for a father or parent, 9.294; ancestral, hereditary, 3.249; of one's country, native, 3.281; belonging to the nation, of the country, 11.374.

cōnfīgō, fīxī, fīxus, 3, a.: to fasten together or firmly; transfix, pierce, 2.429, et al.

exspīrō, āvī, ātus, 1, a. and n.: to breathe out, 1.44; to expire, die, 10.731.

aditus, ūs, m.: a going to; an approach, avenue, access, passage, entrance, 2.494; (fig.), approach, 4.423. (adeō)

ruō, ruī, rutus, 3, n. and a.: to fall with violence; tumble down, fall, freq.; fall in battle, 10.756; of the sun, go down, set, 3.508; rush forward, 2.64; of the chariot of Nox, hasten up; ascend, rise, 2.250; advance, 10.256; plunge, rush, 2.353; flee, 12.505; tremble, quake, 8.525; hasten, pass away, 6.539; cause to fall; cast down, 9.516; plow, 1.35; cast, throw up, 1.85; throw up or together, 11.211.

exclūdō, clūsī, clūsus, 3, a.: to shut out, exclude. (ex and claudō)

lacrimō, āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.: to shed tears, weep, 1.459. (lacrima)

praeceps, cipitis: adj. (prae and caput), head foremost; headlong, 2.307; deep, 11.888; hurried, hasty, quick, speedy, 4.573; flying, running swiftly, 2.516; 3.598; rash, impetuous, fiery, 9.685; prolept., ready to sink, 10.232; subst., praeceps, n., a steep, precipice, verge, 2.460; in praeceps, headlong; downwards, 6.578.

fossa, ae, f.: a ditch, trench, 7.157. (fodiō)

urgeō, ursī, 2, a. and n.: to drive, impel, press forward, 1.111; ply, hasten, 9.489; press, oppress, crush, bear down, 3.579; press around, inclose, surround, hem in, 11.524; weigh upon, oppress, close, 10.745; overpower, 2.653; attack, 10.375; punish, torture, 6.561.

ruīna, ae, f.: a falling down; fall, overthrow; convulsion, commotion, destructive force, 1.129; onset, shock, 11.613; pl., ruin, overthrow, destruction, 1.238; dare, trahere ruīnam, to fall in ruins, 2.310; bring destruction, 12.454. (ruō)

immittō, mīsī, missus, 3, a.: to send upon or to; drive to, 6.312; bring upon, 4.488; let in, 2.495; let fly, go, loosen, 6.1; hurl, fling, cast, 11.562; (with sē), rush into, 6.262; p., immissus, a, um, of the reins of horses, let loose; hence, (fig.), swiftly running, 5.146; unchecked, unbridled, 5.662; of the hair or beard, descending, left growing, neglected, long, 3.593.

concieō, īvī, itus, 2, a.: to call together; incite, to stir up, arouse; enrage, fire, make furious, 9.694; hurl, shoot from, 12.921; disturb, 3.127; (pass.), to be impelled on, dart along, 11.744; hasten, speed, 12.902.

frēnum, ī, n.; in the pl. sometimes frēnī, ōrum: a bit, 4.135; bridle, reins, 3.542; (fig.), 6.100.

arietō (by synaeresis sometimes trisyll.), āvī, ātus, 1, a. and n.: to strike; to stumble; dash, 11.890. (ariēs)

ōbex, icis, m. and f.: an obstacle; a barrier, 10.377; a bolt, bar, 8.227. (ob and iaciō)

postis, is, m.: a post; doorpost, jamb, 3.287; door, 2.480. (rel. to pōnō)

certāmen, inis, n.: a striving, a struggle; effort, 5.197; combat, emulation, strife, 3.128; battle, war, 8.639; contest, game, 5.286. (certō)

mōnstrō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to show, point out, indicate, 1.444; inform, tell, 1.321; direct, incite, 9.44; ordain, appoint, prescribe, 4.636. (mōnstrum)

manus, ūs, f.: the hand, 1.487; freq.; (meton.), action, movement of the hand; work, art, handiwork, 3.486; prowess, heroic deed, action, 2.434; force, violence, 2.645; a collection of persons; a band, crew, troop; an army, 2.29; forces, 5.623; multitude, 6.660; pl., manūs, workmen, 11.329; dare manūs, to yield, 11.558; extrēma manus, the finishing hand or touch, 7.572.

trepidus, a, um: (adj.), agitated, uneasy, disturbed, trembling, affrighted, 2.380; excited, tumultuous, 11.300; confused, in disorder, 10.283; alarmed, fearful of, anxious for, w. gen., 12.589; panic-stricken, 12.583.

atque, or ac: (conj.), and in addition, or and besides; and, as well, and indeed, and, 1.575; freq.; even, 2.626; in comparisons, as, 4.90; than, 3.561.

rōbur, oris, n.: hard oak or wood, 6.181; a tree, 8.315; (meton.), timber, a wooden structure; fabric, 2.260; (fig.), sturdiness, strength, firmness, courage, vigor, 2.639; pl., rōbora, wood, timber, 4.399; vigor, flower, 8.518.

stīpes, itis, m.: a log or post, stem, trunk of a tree, 3.43; club, 7.524.

sudēs, is, f.: a stake; a palisade, 11.473.

imitor, ātus sum, 1, dep. a.: to imitate, 6.586; substitute for, use for, literally, imitate with, 11.894.

obūstus, a, um: adj. (ob and ūrō), burnt, hardened in the fire, 7.506.

article Nav

Suggested Citation

Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5.