Vergil, Aeneid IX 420-445

Saevit atrōx Volcēns nec tēlī cōnspicit ūsquam420

auctōrem nec quō sē ārdēns immittere possit.

'Tū tamen intereā calidō mihi sanguine poenās

persolvēs ambōrum' inquit; simul ēnse reclūsō

ībat in Euryalum. Tum vērō exterritus, āmēns,

conclāmat Nīsus nec sē cēlāre tenebrīs425

amplius aut tantum potuit perferre dolōrem:

'Mē, mē, adsum quī fēcī, in mē convertite ferrum,

ō Rutulī! mea fraus omnis, nihil iste nec ausus

nec potuit; caelum hōc et cōnscia sīdera testor;

tantum īnfēlīcem nimium dīlēxit amīcum.'430

Tālia dicta dabat, sed vīribus ēnsis adāctus

trānsadigit costās et candida pectora rumpit.

volvitur Euryalus lētō, pulchrōsque per artūs

it cruor inque umerōs cervīx conlāpsa recumbit:

purpureus velutī cum flōs succīsus arātrō435

languēscit moriēns, lassōve papāvera collō

dēmīsēre caput pluviā cum forte gravantur.

At Nīsus ruit in mediōs sōlumque per omnīs

Volcentem petit, in sōlō Volcente morātur.

Quem circum glomerātī hostēs hinc comminus atque hinc440

prōturbant. īnstat non sētius ac rotat ēnsem

fulmineum, dōnec Rutulī clāmantis in ōre

condidit adversō et moriēns animam abstulit hostī.

Tum super exanimum sēsē prōiēcit amīcum

cōnfossus, placidāque ibi dēmum morte quiēvit.445

CORE VOCABULARY

saeviō, iī, ītus, 4, n.: to be fierce; to be furious, rage; be angry, 6.544. (saevus)

atrox, ōcis: adj. (āter), cruel, fierce, relentless, 1.662.

Volcēns, entis, m.: a Latin chief, 9.370.

nec or neque: (adv. and conj.), and not; neither, nor, 1.643, et al.; in prohibition, 3.394, et al.; neque (nec) — neque (nec), neither — nor, 5.21, et al.; nec — et, or -que, may be rendered neither — nor, 12.801; 2.534; nec nōn, and also, nor less, 6.183; nec nōn et, and also, 1.707.

cōnspiciō, spexī, spectus, 3, a.: to have a complete view of; to look at, see, behold, 1.152; descry, discover, find, 6.508; p., cōnspectus, a, um, conspicuous. (com- and speciō, look)

ūsquam: (adv.), anywhere, 1.604; by any means, at all, 8.568.

ārdēns, entis: burning, hot, sparkling, flaming, 5.637; bright, 4.482; impassioned, ardent, eager, 1.423; spirited, fiery, 1.472; glowing, lofty, 6.130; fierce, furious, 2.529; angry, 6.467. (ardeo)

immittō, mīsī, missus, 3, a.: to send upon or to; drive to, 6.312; bring upon, 4.488; let in, 2.495; let fly, go, loosen, 6.1; hurl, fling, cast, 11.562; (with sē), rush into, 6.262; p., immissus, a, um, of the reins of horses, let loose; hence, (fig.), swiftly running, 5.146; unchecked, unbridled, 5.662; of the hair or beard, descending, left growing, neglected, long, 3.593.

possum, potuī, posse, irreg. n.: to be able; can, 1.242, et al.; to avail, have influence, power, 4.382. (potis and sum)

intereā: (adv.), amid these things; meanwhile, in the meantime, 1.418, et al.

calidus, a, um: adj. (caleō), warm, hot, 6.218; reeking, 10.486; of the spirit or disposition, hot, fiery.

persolvō, solvī, solūtus, 3, a.: to loosen completely; set free; free one's self from obligation; pay, render, give, return, 1.600, et al.; sacrifice, offer, 5.484.

ambō, ae, ō: (adj.), both, 1.458.

ēnsis, is, m.: a sword, 2.393, et al.; knife, 2.155.

reclūdō, clūsī, clūsus, 3, a.: to unclose; to open, freq.; throw open, 3.92; reveal, disclose, 1.358; unsheathe, 4.646; cut or lay open, 4.63. (re- and claudō)

Euryalus, ī, m.: a Trojan youth among the followers of Aeneas, 5.294.

exter (exterus), era, erum: adj. (ex), on the outside; external, foreign, 4.350; superl., extrēmus (or extimus), a, um, outermost; outer, 12.925; last, most distant, farthest, 5.327; remotest, hindmost, last, 5.183; final, 3.714; consummating, finishing, 7.572; last in degree; extreme, basest, worst, 11.701; the instant of, verge of, 2.447; subst., extrēma, ōrum, pl. n., the most distant parts, 1.577; the last sufferings, death, 1.219; perils, 3.315; adv.; extrēma, for the last time, one’s last, 11.865.

āmēns, entis: out of one’s mind or senses; amazed, beside one’s self, frantic, mad, furious, 2.314; 4.203; distracted, 3.307.

conclāmō, āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.: to call out aloud; shout, cry, 3.523; call together, 7.504.

Nīsus, ī, m.: a follower of Aeneas, 5.294.

cēlō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to hide, conceal, 1.351, et al.

amplus, a, um: (adj.), spacious, large, ample, 2.310; splendid, magnificent, glorious, 4.93; comp., amplior, us, larger; (adv.), amplius, more, longer, 1.683.

perferō, tulī, lātus, ferre, irreg. a.: to carry or bear through; carry, restore, return, 11.717; report, 5.665; convey completely, carry home, 10.786; reach the mark, 12.907; undergo, endure, suffer, 3.323; (w. reflex. pron.), betake one's self, go, 1.389; p., perlātus, a, um, carried to the mark; striking, 11.803.

adsum, adfuī, esse, irreg. n.: to be near or by; to be present, at hand, or here, 1.595; to have arrived, 2.132; to be with, attend, 2.701; aid, accompany, 10.547; be propitious, 3.116; to beset, 2.330; inf., adfore, to be about to come, destined to come, 7.270. (imp. subj., adforem, -ēs, -et, -ent)

ō: (interj. expressing joy, grief, astonishment, desire, or indignation), O! oh! ah! w. voc., 2.281, et al.; w. sī and the subj., oh that, 11.415; sometimes placed after the word to which it relates, 2.281.

Rutulī, ōrum, m.: the Rutulians, an ancient tribe of Latium dwelling south of the Tiber, 1.266, et al.

fraus, fraudis, f.: fraud, deception, treachery, deceit, guile, 4.675; stratagem, ambuscade, 11.522; wickedness; fault, offense, 9.428; mischance, harm, 10.72; hurt, harm, 11.708; treacherous nature, uncertainty, 9.397.

cōnscius, a, um: adj. (com- and sciō), having complete knowledge; conscious, 5.455; conscious of, 2.141; conscious of guilt, guilty, 2.99; witnessing (w. dat.), 4.167; having knowledge in common, or a mutual understanding; confederate, 2.267.

testor, ātus sum, 1, dep. a.: to testify, bear witness to, with acc. of object witnessed, 3.487; to call to witness, appeal to, with acc. of witness called upon, 2.155; invoke, 12.496; w. object omitted, adjure, implore, 3.599; declare, proclaim, 6.619; beseech (call to witness the offering), 11.559. (testis)

īnfēlīx, īcis: (adj.), unlucky; unfortunate, luckless, unhappy, 1.475, et al.; sad, miserable, 2.772; of ill omen, ill-starred, ill-boding, fatal, 2.245; unfruitful.

dīligō, lēxī, lēctus, 3, a.: to love, 8.590; p., dīlēctus, a, um, loved, dear, 1.344.

dictum, ī, n.: a thing said; word, 1.197; command, precept, injunction, 1.695; promise, 8.643. (dīcō)

adigō, ēgī, āctus, 3, a.: to drive, take, bring to, 9, 601; thrust, 9, 431; to strike down, hurl, 4, 25; force, urge, impel, with inf., 6, 696; drive, 10, 850. (ad and agō)

trānsadigō, adēgī, adāctus, 3, a.: to drive through, thrust, 12.508; of the object which is stabbed, pierce, 12.276.

costa, ae, f.: a rib, 1.211; side.

volvō, volvī, volūtus, 3, a.: to roll, 1.86; roll along or down, 1.101; roll or cast up, 3.206; toss, hurl, 12.906; roll over, roll in the dust, 12.329; cast, hurl down, 1.116; 9.512; roll, wheel, 1.163; of books, open, unroll, 1.262; of the Fates, fix the circle of events, decree, ordain, dispose, 1.22; 3.376; of the mind, revolve, meditate, reflect upon, 1.305; pass, continue, live through, experience, endure, suffer, 1.9; rotam volvere, to complete a cycle, period; (pass.), volvī, roll over, roll, 10.590; turn or wind about, 7.350; to be shed, to flow, 4.449; roll on, revolve, 1.269.

lētum, ī, n.: death, destruction, 2.134, et al. (cf. dēleō)

artus, ūs, m.: a joint of the body of man or beast, 5.422; a limb, 2.173, et al.; part, member, 6.726; frame, body, 9.490. (generally in the pl., except in later writers)

cruor, ōris, m.: shed blood; gore, 3.43; 4.455; blood.

umerus, ī, m.: the upper bone of the arm; the shoulder, 1.501, and freq.

cervīx, īcis, f.: the neck, including the back or nape of the neck, 1.477, et al.

conlābor, lāpsus sum, 3, dep. n.: to slip or fall together or completely; sink down, 6.226; swoon, faint, 4.391; fall, 4.664.

recumbō, cubuī, 3, n.: to lie down again; sink down, 9.713; depend, rest, 12.59. (re- and cubō, lie down)

purpureus, a, um: adj. (purpura), of purple; purple-colored, scarlet, red, purple, 1.337; of blood, 9.349; ruddy, glowing, brilliant, 1.591.

succīdō, cīdī, cīsus, 3, a.: to cut beneath; cut, sever, 9.762. (sub and caedō)

arātrum, ī, n.: a plow, 5.755, et al. (arō)

languēscō, languī, 3, inc. n.: to become faint, grow weak, droop, 9.436. (langueō)

lassus, a, um: (adj.), faint, tired, wearied, 2.739.

papāver, eris, n.: the poppy, 4.486.

collum, ī, n.: the neck of men and animals, 1.654, et al.; of a plant, 9.436; pl., the neck, 11.692.

dēmittō, mīsī, missus, 3, a.: to send down, 1.297; shed, 6.455; let down into, receive, admit, (of the mind or the senses), 4.428; consign, condemn, 2.85; convey, conduct, 5.29; transmit, hand down, 1.288; dēmittere mentem, to lose heart, sink into despair, 12.609.

pluvia, ae (sc. aqua), f.: rain (pluvius)

gravō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to weigh down, 9.437; oppress, burden, 2.708; (pass.), to resist, yield reluctantly, 10.628. (gravis)

ruō, ruī, rutus, 3, n. and a.: to fall with violence; tumble down, fall, freq.; fall in battle, 10.756; of the sun, go down, set, 3.508; rush forward, 2.64; of the chariot of Nox, hasten up; ascend, rise, 2.250; advance, 10.256; plunge, rush, 2.353; flee, 12.505; tremble, quake, 8.525; hasten, pass away, 6.539; cause to fall; cast down, 9.516; plow, 1.35; cast, throw up, 1.85; throw up or together, 11.211.

circum: (adv.), about, around; (prep. with acc.), around, about.

glomerō, āvī, atus, 1, a.: to gather into a ball or mass; roll, whirl, 3.577; collect; assemble, gather, 2.315; (pass.), glomerārī, in mid. signif., to throng, gather; troop, flock, 1.500. (glomus, ball)

comminus: (adv.), hand to hand, 7.553, 733; immediately; near at hand. (com- and manus)

prōturbō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to push, thrust away, 9.441; repel, 10.801.

īnstō, stitī, 1, n.: to stand on or upon; w. dat., acc., inf., or alone; w. dat., to stand on, 11.529; stand or hang over, 10.196; (w. acc.), to work at, ply work upon, 8.834; (w. inf.), urge on, press on, 1.423; persist, 10.118; (alone), to follow up, press on; pursue, 1.468; struggle, 12.783; be near at hand, approach, threaten, 12.916; to be urgent, important, incumbent, 4.115.

secus: following, late; otherwise, differently; nōn or haud secus, not otherwise, not less; likewise, even so, 2.382, et al.; none the less, nevertheless, 5.862; haud secus ac, nor otherwise than, just as. (comp. adv.), sētius, less, the less; haud sētius, not the less, 7.781.

atque, or ac: (conj.), and in addition, or and besides; and, as well, and indeed, and, 1.575; freq.; even, 2.626; in comparisons, as, 4.90; than, 3.561.

rotō, āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.: to move like a wheel; whirl about, 10.362; to brandish, 10.577. (rota)

fulmineus, a, um: adj. (fulmen), like lightning; gleaming, flashing, 4.580; like lightning (with his lightning darts), 9.812.

Rutulus, ī, m.: a Rutulian; Turnus, 7.409; for the pl., the Rutulians, 8.474.

clāmō, āvī, ātus, 1, a. and n.: to call, 12.600; call; call upon, 4.674; cry out or aloud, shout, 9.442. (rel. to καλέω, call)

exanimis, e, and exanimus, a, um: adj. (ex and anima), breathless; lifeless, dead, 1.484; slain, 11.110; breathless with fear, terrified, 4.672.

prōiciō, iēci, iectus, 3, a.: to throw or cast forth; to throw or cast down, as an offering; to throw or fling down, 5.402; throw away, 6.835; plunge, 5.859; expose, 11.361; w. dat., 12.256. (prō and iaciō)

cōnfodiō, fōdī, fossus, 3, a.: to stab, wound, 9.445.

placidus, a, um: adj. (placeō), gentle, calm, tranquil, peaceful, serene, 5.848; inactive, idle, 9.187; friendly, propitious, 3.266; (adv.), placidē, gently, softly, quietly, calmly, 5.86.

dēmum: (adv.), at length, at last, 1.629; at least, indeed, especially. (dē with n. superl. ending -mum, hence, perhaps meaning downmost)

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Suggested Citation

Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/vergil-aeneid/vergil-aeneid-ix-420-445