Vergil, Aeneid IV 659-692

Dīxit, et ōs impressa torō 'Moriēmur inultae,

sed moriāmur' ait. 'sīc, sīc iuvat īre sub umbrās.660

Hauriat hunc oculīs ignem crudēlis ab altō

Dardanus, et nostrae sēcum ferat ōmina mortis.'

Dīxerat, atque illam media inter tālia ferrō

conlāpsam aspiciunt comitēs, ēnsemque cruōre

spūmantem sparsāsque manūs. It clāmor ad alta665

ātria: concussam bacchātur Fāma per urbem.

Lāmentīs gemitūque et fēmineō ululātū

tēcta fremunt, resonat magnīs plangōribus aethēr,

nōn aliter quam sī immissīs ruat hostibus omnis

Karthāgō aut antīqua Tyros, flammaeque furentēs670

culmina perque hominum volvantur perque deōrum.

Audiit exanimis trepidōque exterrita cursū

unguibus ōra soror foedāns et pectora pugnīs

per mediōs ruit, ac morientem nōmine clāmat:

'Hoc illud, germāna, fuit? Mē fraude petēbās?675

Hoc rogus iste mihi, hoc ignēs āraeque parābant?

Quid prīmum dēserta querar? Comitemne sorōrem

sprēvistī moriēns? Eadem mē ad fāta vocāssēs,

Īdem ambās ferrō dolor atque eadem hōra tulisset.

Hīs etiam strūxī manibus patriōsque vocāvī680

vōce deōs, sīc tē ut positā, crudēlis, abessem?

Exstīnxtī tē mēque, soror, populumque patrēsque

Sīdoniōs urbemque tuam. Date, vulnera lymphīs

abluam et, extrēmus sī quis super hālitus errat,

ōre legam.' Sīc fāta gradūs ēvāserat altōs,685

sēmianimemque sinū germānam amplexa fovēbat

cum gemitū atque ātrōs siccābat veste cruōrēs.

Illa gravēs oculōs cōnāta attollere rūrsus

dēficit; īnfīxum strīdit sub pectore vulnus.

Ter sēsē attollēns cubitōque adnīxa levāvit,690

ter revolūta torō est oculīsque errantibus altō

quaesīvit caelō lūcem ingemuitque repertā.

Manuscripts: M 659-670, 671-692 | P 659-670, 671-692

Dido sinks dying: a wail of despair arises among her maidens, and spreading through the palace and city alarms her sister, who rushes to the spot and with bitter laments and reproaches attempts to staunch the wound. The death agony begins (Page). The news flies through the city, and Anna rushes wild with grief to the side of her dying sister (Frieze).

659: ōs impressa torō…: “pressing her lips upon the couch,” i.e., in a farewell kiss (F-B). Impressa is a middle voice participle, with ōs an accusative of specification (“Greek accusative”) (AG 397), literally “having pressed (herself as to) her mouth upon the couch” (Stephenson). inultae: very emphatic: to die unavenged or to leave the dead unavenged was repugnant to ancient sentiment (Page).

660: sed: “still” (Comstock). sīc, sīc iuvat…: supply ; “thus, thus ‘tis joy to pass beneath the shades”; “thus, (even) thus, rejoicing do I join the shades below” (Comstock). What exact meaning to attach to sīc each one must judge for oneself. Some take it as summing up all that precedes = “with this sword, on this couch, etc.”; others refer it especially to inultae—“even so” = unavenged. Conington makes her stab herself at each utterance of the word, but this seems too theatrical (Page). The adverb sīc, made emphatic by its repetition, refers to the manner and circumstances of her death (F-B).

661: hauriat oculīs: for percipiat oculīs: Hauriat and ferat (662) are jussive subjunctives (AG 439) (Pharr). hunc ignem: i.e.,the blaze from this pyre, which will be kindled after her death (F-B). Whether Dido herself kindled the fire or it was later lighted by attendants to burn her body has been disputed. At the destruction of Carthage in 146 BC the wife of Hasdrubal threw herself and her children from the citadel into the burning streets (Livy, Periochae 51). So the last queen of Carthage and first had a similar fate and a like exit from life (Pease). ab altō: “out at sea” (F-B).

662: Dardanus: = Aenēās (Pharr). nostrae ōmina mortis: i.e., the omens which my death will suggest (F-B); the omens which will bring him continual sorrow and misfortune (Pharr). Anything seen when setting out on a journey was especially ominous (Page). mortis: and so “Aeneas” is her last thought, “death” her last word (Austin). Vergil does not tell us of the kindling of the pyre. We hear of it only from 5.3 ff., moenia respiciens, quae iam infelicis Elissae/ conlucent flammis. quae tantum accenderit ignem/ causa latet (Austin).

663: media inter tālia: “even as she spoke” (Comstock); i.e., when she had scarcely ended her words (Frieze). ferrō: = in ferrum “on the sword” (Page); ablative of means (AG 409) (Pharr). The sword would slip from her hand as she stabbed herself the second time (Stephenson).

664: comitēs: her attendants; perhaps, first Barce, the nurse, and then others, summoned by her cries; or, perhaps, already standing at some distance in the court (Frieze).

665: spumantem: “dripping” (Comstock). sparsās manūs: sparsās could be taken with cruore; but Henry makes a clear case for the meaning “flung wide,” “lying powerless” (Servius comments aut perfusas sanguine aut morte resolutas) (Austin). it clāmor: “a cry arises,” i.e., the death-wail, so common and so striking in many countries (Page).

666: ātria: “palace”; used of the whole structure (F-B). concussam…urbem: “Rumor rushes wildly through the startled town” (Page). bacchātur: “runs riot” (F-B). “The rumor flies wildly through the horror-stricken city (Frieze).

667: lāmentīs gemitūque…ululātū: “with lamentation and mourning and wail of women the houses ring.” Note the wild and imitative rhythm of this line (Page). immissīs…hostibus: “the foe having entered,” ablative absolute (AG 419) (Comstock).

669–70: ruat…omnis Karthāgō: There is a significance in the words “if Carthage should one day fall” in the mouth of a Roman (Conington). Ruat is present subjunctive in a future less vivid condition (AG 516).

670: Tyros: nominative singular, a Greek form (Pharr).

671: culmina perque hominum volvantur perque deōrum: culmina = tēcta (Chase). The flames “roll on” in wave after wave (Page); “roll on over the roofs of houses and temples.” Note how the anaphora (perque…perque) promotes the descriptive effect of the verse (F-B). perque: Prepositions are sometimes placed after their objects (anastrophe); this occurs, with nouns, first, before an adjective, as in fronde super viridī (“under the green folilage”); secondly, before a genitive, as here; thirdly, before a second noun similarly governed, as in saxa per et scopulōs (“over rocks and crags”). It is more common in the case of dissyllabic than in that of monosyllabic prepositions, and after a pronoun, like quī or hic, than after a noun (Chase).

672: exanimis: “aghast” (Comstock). trepidō cursū: “in wild haste,” with ruit (F-B); ablative of manner (AG 412) (Pharr).

673: ōra foedāns et pectora: as an expression of grief (Pharr).

675–6: hoc…hoc: pronounce hocc, making a long syllable (Pharr).

675: hoc illud fuit: “Was this then your purpose?” (Page); “Was this what it meant?” literally “Was that (about which you spoke to me) this (which you are doing now)?” (Stephenson); “Was this, then, your aim in your commands given to me?” (Frieze); “Was this (your own death) that which you were planning?” (Pharr); “Was this that thing you had in view?” (Chase). mē fraude petēbās: “Was it me that you were plotting to deceive?” (Comstock); literally, “assailing me with deceit”: petere often has a hostile meaning (F-B). is emphatic: “even me, your own sister?” (Frieze).

676: hoc rogus…parābant: “is this what the pyre, (etc.) were preparing?” (Frieze).

677: Quid querar: deliberative subjunctive (AG 444) (Pharr).

678: vocāssēs: syncopated form of vocā(vi)ssēs. Take as vocāre dēbēbās or utinam vocāssēs. “To the same doom you should have invited me, the same pang…should have removed both of us,” or “Would that you had invited…” (Page). The mood and tense of vocāssēs express a past unfulfilled duty (F-B) or desire (Frieze) (AG 442).

679: tulisset: = abstulisset. It is used like vocāssēs above (F-B).

680–1: struxī: supply pyram (F-B). vōce vocāvī: “called aloud upon” (Page). positā: describes a person stretched out dead or dying (Page): “when you were laid out (in death)” (G-K). crūdēlis: Anna very naturally reproaches herself with cruelty for having unwittingly helped to bring about this cruel end (Stephenson). ut abessem: purpose clause (AG 531) (Pharr). “And—more—was it with these very hands that I built it, did I pray solemnly to our country’s gods, only to be far away from you—O the cruelty of it!—when you were laid so?” (Austin).

682: exstinxtī: syncopated form of exstinx(is)tī (Pharr). populumque patrēsque: The “people” and the “Fathers” (i.e. the senate) constitute the whole nation, the phrase being modelled on the well-known Senātus Populusque Rōmānus (Page).

683: date vulnera lymphīs abluam…: supply ut, substantive clause (AG 571) (Pharr); “grant me to wash her wounds with water and gather with my mouth whatever last breath flickers over hers.” The words are in strong contrast with her previous passionate speech; her passion is over, she has but one care—to perform the last acts of tenderness and love to her dying sister (Page). The subjunctives abluam and legam (685) are in parataxis with date (F-B). Lymphīs is an ablative of means (AG 409) (Frieze). date: aut aquam aut ‘date,’ id est, premitte. lavare autem cadaver satis proximis concedebatur; unde queritur mater Euryali (9.487–488) ‘nec vulnera lavi/ veste tegens’(Servius).

684: extrēmus sī quis super hālitus errat, ōre legam: The ancient custom of catching the breath of a dying person was one of the last tributes of affection, a survival of the primitive notion that in this way the existence of the spirit was continued (F-B). sī quis = sī aliquis, with the prefix ali- eliminated when following sī, nisi, num, and . super errat: “flutters over (her lips)” (Comstock); “remaining,” rather than “above (the mouth)” (Pease).

685: ōre legam: “I will catch in (my) mouth” (Comstock); a customary office of affection, like closing the eyes of the dying (G-K). Either referring to the Roman custom of having the nearest relative catch the dying breath in his own mouth, or expressing a desire to keep the last breath from leaving the body (Harper/Miller). sīc fāta gradūs ēvāserat altōs: “so saying (i.e., while so speaking) she had climbed the lofty steps (of the pyre)” (F-B). Fāta (from for, fārī) should be taken as a present participle (Page). The tense of ēvāserat expresses rapidity. The accusative (gradūs) after ēvādō is a constructiō ad sēnsum, ēvādō getting the notion of “clearing” or “surmounting,” and taking its case accordingly (Stephenson).

686: sēmianimem: scan as four syllables, sēmjanimem, the i having its consonantal sound y (Page).

687: siccābat: “tried to stanch” (G-K). cruorēs: this plural use, in the sense of “drops of blood” is one of Vergil’s inventions, which he does not use elsewhere; Horace has cruoribus in the same sense (Odes 2.1.5). Ovid has cruores once only (= “bloodshed”), Met. 13.482. Vergil probably had the Greek use of αἵματα in mind (Austin).

688: illa: = Dīdō (F-B).

689: dēficit: “swoons”: the sign of life shown in lifting her eyes disappears (Page). infixum strīdit…vulnus: “the deep-planted wound sobs within her breast.” What exact sound strīdit represents is uncertain, but it clearly indicates the painfulness of her breathing (Page). Strīdit = the gurgling sound of the spouting blood (Stephenson).

690: ter: Servius: aut ‘saepius’ (cf. Serv. Aen. 1.116), aut promanteusis est, propter bella Carthaginis (a fanciful bit of symbolism on the part of Servius) (Pease).

sēsē: governed by both attollēns and levāvit (F-B). cubitō: ablative of means with adnixa, taken as a present participle (Pharr): “leaning (or resting) on her elbow” (Comstock).

691: revolūta est: “fell back” (Comstock). torō: supply in (Pharr); dative, or possibly ablative of place where (G-K).

692: quaesīvit lūcem: The dim eyes of the dying queen “roam” vaguely in search of the light, and then, when they have at last turned heavenward and found it, she “groans deeply” and—the rest is silence (Page). The ancients were strongly impressed with the thought that the last act of the dying was to gaze upon the light (G-K). ingemuit repertā: supply lūce, ablative absolute (AG 419) (Pharr). The sad “Virgilian cry” nowhere rings with more touching pathos than in these verses, describing the final moments of the great Dido (F-B): “(the light) having been perceived, she groaned,” mourning at the last moment to leave the world (Frieze).

CORE VOCABULARY

imprimō, pressī, pressus, 3, a.: to press into, on, or upon, 4.659; impress, mark; engrave, chase, 5.536. (1. in and premō)

torus, ī, m.: a bed, couch, 1.708; seat, 5.388; royal seat, throne, 8.177; bank, 6.674; the swelling part of flesh; a brawny muscle.

inultus, a, um: (adj.), unavenged, 2.670.

hauriō, hausī, haustus, 4, a.: to draw any fluid, 9.23; drink; drain, 1.738; draw blood with a weapon; devour, slay, 2.600; pierce, 10.314; take in with the eyes or ears; receive, 12.26; perceive, see, 4.661; hear, 4.359; strain, thrill, 5.137; suffer, 4.383; conceive, 10.648.

crūdēlis, e: adj. (crūdus), unfeeling, ruthless, cruel, inhuman, 2.124; relentless, 1.547; unnatural, 6.24; mortal, deadly, 2.561; bloody, 1.355; bitter, 1.361.

altum, ī, n.: the deep; the lofty; the deep sea, the main, the deep, 1.3; the sky, heaven, air, 1.297; from far, far-fetched, remote, 8.395. (altus)

Dardanus, ī, m.: Dardanus, son of Jupiter and Electra, father of the Trojan line of kings, and thus progenitor of the Romans, 6.650, et al.

ōmen, inis, n.: a prognostic, token, sign, omen, 2.182; (meton.), evil, 2.190; auspicious beginning, 7.174; pl., auspices; rites, 1.346; in ōmen, as or for a warning, 12.854.

conlābor, lāpsus sum, 3, dep. n.: to slip or fall together or completely; sink down, 6.226; swoon, faint, 4.391; fall, 4.664.

ēnsis, is, m.: a sword, 2.393, et al.; knife, 2.155.

cruor, ōris, m.: shed blood; gore, 3.43; 4.455; blood.

spūmō, āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.: to foam, 3.534, et al. (spūma)

spargō, sparsī, sparsus, 3, a.: to scatter, strew; cast in fragments, 3.605; disperse, 1.602; shower, hurl, 12.51; sprinkle, 4.512; besprinkle, bedew, stain, 8.645; infuse, 4.486; (fig.), spread abroad, disseminate, 2.98; bring over or upon, diffuse, 7.754.

manus, ūs, f.: the hand, 1.487; freq.; (meton.), action, movement of the hand; work, art, handiwork, 3.486; prowess, heroic deed, action, 2.434; force, violence, 2.645; a collection of persons; a band, crew, troop; an army, 2.29; forces, 5.623; multitude, 6.660; pl., manūs, workmen, 11.329; dare manūs, to yield, 11.558; extrēma manus, the finishing hand or touch, 7.572.

ātrium, iī, n.: a rectangular area in the middle of a dwelling, partly open to the sky; and often surrounded with a colonnade; the court or principal apartment of a dwelling; or, in a house containing more than one court, the forecourt or first hall; a court, hall, 2.483, et al.

concutiō, cussī, cussus, 3, a.: to shake completely; shake, 2.629; push, 8.237; rouse, spur, 8.3; sift, examine, search, 7.338; agitate, strike with panic, terrify, 4.666; smite, afflict, 5.700. (com- and quatiō)

bacchor, ātus sum, 1, dep. n. and a.: to perform the orgies of Bacchus; rage, rave, 6.78; rush or run madly or wildly, 4.301; fly wildly, 4.666; p., bacchātus, a, um, resounding with the revels of Bacchus, 3.125; filling with fury, spreading fury, 10.41. (Bacchus)

fāma, ae, f.: report, rumor, 1.532; tradition, 7.765; renown, name, fame, 1.463; glory, 9.195; fame, reputation, honor, 4.91; personified as a goddess, Fame, Rumor, 4.173. (cf. φήμη, report)

lāmenta, ōrum, n.: a wailing, cry of grief, lamentation, mourning, moaning, 4.667. (sing. not in good use)

gemitus, ūs, m.: a groaning; a groan, 3.39, et al.; sigh, 1.485; lamentation, 2.486; cry, 2.413; noise, roaring, 3.555. (gemō)

fēmineus, a, um: adj. (fēmina), pertaining to women; female, 9.142; a woman’s, of a woman, 2.584; of women, 4.667; fit for a woman, 12.53.

ululātus, ūs, m.: a yelling, howling, 7.395; wailing, shrieking, 4.667. (ululō)

fremō, uī, itus, 3, n. and a.: to make a murmuring noise; to roar, 1.56; whinny, neigh, 12.82; raise lamentations, 6.175; whiz, 12.922; resound, 4.668; rage, 5.19; to be fierce, furious, 4.229; fume, rave, 12.535; shout and sing, 4.146; a., rage, rave for, clamor for, 11.453, et al.; ore fremere, applaud, shout applause, 5.385; p., fremēns, entis, raging, 4.229.

resonō, āvī, 1, n. and a.: to sound again or loudly; reëcho, resound, 4.668; (w. acc.), make resound, fill, 7.12.

plangor, ōris, m.: lamentation by beating the breast; lamentation, wailing, cry of grief, 2.487. (plangō)

immittō, mīsī, missus, 3, a.: to send upon or to; drive to, 6.312; bring upon, 4.488; let in, 2.495; let fly, go, loosen, 6.1; hurl, fling, cast, 11.562; (with sē), rush into, 6.262; p., immissus, a, um, of the reins of horses, let loose; hence, (fig.), swiftly running, 5.146; unchecked, unbridled, 5.662; of the hair or beard, descending, left growing, neglected, long, 3.593.

ruō, ruī, rutus, 3, n. and a.: to fall with violence; tumble down, fall, freq.; fall in battle, 10.756; of the sun, go down, set, 3.508; rush forward, 2.64; of the chariot of Nox, hasten up; ascend, rise, 2.250; advance, 10.256; plunge, rush, 2.353; flee, 12.505; tremble, quake, 8.525; hasten, pass away, 6.539; cause to fall; cast down, 9.516; plow, 1.35; cast, throw up, 1.85; throw up or together, 11.211.

Karthāgō, inis, f.: a city built by Phoenician adventurers on the northern coast of Africa, opposite Sicily, a short distance N.E. of the modern Tunis, 1.13, et al. (Καρχηδών, new city)

Tyros (Tyrus), ī, f.: Tyre, the ancient maritime capital of Phoenicia, 1.346.

furō, uī, 3, n.: to be mad; freq., to rave, be frantic, rage, 1.491; to be furious, burn, storm (for war), 7.625; to be burning or mad with love, 1.659; to be frenzied, in a frenzy, 6.100; inspired, 2.345; distracted with grief, 3.313; plunge madly, 9.552; boil, 7.464; with cognate acc., give vent to one's fury, 12.680.

culmen, inis, n.: a top, summit, height, 2.290; house top, ridge, roof, 2.458. (cf. columna)

volvō, volvī, volūtus, 3, a.: to roll, 1.86; roll along or down, 1.101; roll or cast up, 3.206; toss, hurl, 12.906; roll over, roll in the dust, 12.329; cast, hurl down, 1.116; 9.512; roll, wheel, 1.163; of books, open, unroll, 1.262; of the Fates, fix the circle of events, decree, ordain, dispose, 1.22; 3.376; of the mind, revolve, meditate, reflect upon, 1.305; pass, continue, live through, experience, endure, suffer, 1.9; rotam volvere, to complete a cycle, period; (pass.), volvī, roll over, roll, 10.590; turn or wind about, 7.350; to be shed, to flow, 4.449; roll on, revolve, 1.269.

exanimis, e, and exanimus, a, um: adj. (ex and anima), breathless; lifeless, dead, 1.484; slain, 11.110; breathless with fear, terrified, 4.672.

trepidus, a, um: (adj.), agitated, uneasy, disturbed, trembling, affrighted, 2.380; excited, tumultuous, 11.300; confused, in disorder, 10.283; alarmed, fearful of, anxious for, w. gen., 12.589; panic-stricken, 12.583.

exterreō, uī, itus, 2, a.: to frighten; alarm, startle, terrify, 3.307; flutter in terror, 5.505; p., exterritus, a, um, startled; roused, 4.571.

unguis, is, m.: a finger-nail, 4.673; talon, 12.255; claw, 5.352; in unguem, (polished) to the nail.

foedō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to make foul; defile, pollute, 3.227; (fig.), disfigure, mutilate, 2.286; lacerate, wound, 12.871; break, tear in pieces, destroy, 2.55. (foedus)

pūgnus, ī, m.: a fist, hand, 4.673.

atque, or ac: (conj.), and in addition, or and besides; and, as well, and indeed, and, 1.575; freq.; even, 2.626; in comparisons, as, 4.90; than, 3.561.

clāmō, āvī, ātus, 1, a. and n.: to call, 12.600; call; call upon, 4.674; cry out or aloud, shout, 9.442. (rel. to καλέω, call)

germānus, a, um: (adj.), of the same parentage; particularly, of the same father; own; subst., germānus, ī, m., own brother; brother, 1.341, et al.; germāna, ae, f., own sister; sister, 4.478.

fraus, fraudis, f.: fraud, deception, treachery, deceit, guile, 4.675; stratagem, ambuscade, 11.522; wickedness; fault, offense, 9.428; mischance, harm, 10.72; hurt, harm, 11.708; treacherous nature, uncertainty, 9.397.

rogus, ī, m.: a funeral pile, 4.640.

spernō, sprēvī, sprētus, 3, a.: to sever, remove; (fig.), reject, despise, scorn, disdain, 4.678; insult, 1.27.

ambō, ae, ō: (adj.), both, 1.458.

struō, strūxī, strūctus, 3, a.: to place side by side or upon; to pile up; build, erect, 3.84; cover, load, 5.54; arrange, 1.704; like īnstruō, to form or draw out a line of battle, 9.42; (fig.), to plan, purpose, intend, 4.271; bring about, effect, 2.60. (rel. to sternō)

patrius, a, um: adj. (pater), pertaining to one's father or ancestors; a father's, 2.658; paternal, natural to a father, 1.643; exacted by a father, 7.766; due to, felt for a father or parent, 9.294; ancestral, hereditary, 3.249; of one's country, native, 3.281; belonging to the nation, of the country, 11.374.

absum, āfuī or abfuī, āfutūrus or abfutūrus, abesse, irreg. n.: to be away; to be absent, 2.620; distant, 11.907; to be wanting, missing, 1.584; inf., āfore, or abfore, will be wanting, 8.147.

exstinguō, stīnxī, stīnctus, 3, a. (pluperf. extīnxem, for extīnxissem, 4.606): to extinguish, put out, quench, 8.267; blot out, extinguish, 6.527; extirpate, kill, destroy, 4.682; p., exstīnctus, a, um, lost, 4.322.

Sīdōnius, a, um: (adj.), of Sidon; Sidonian; Phoenician, Tyrian, 1.678, et al.

lympha, ae, f.: clear spring water; water, 4.635, et al.; pl., for sing., 1.701, et al.

abluō, luī, lūtus, 3, a.: to wash away, 9.818; cleanse, purify, wash, 2.720.

quis, qua or quae, quid or quod: (indef. pron., adj., and subst.), any, some, 2.94, et al.; some one, any one, any body, anything, something, 1.413, et al.; sī quis, nē quis, etc., if any, lest any, etc., freq.; (adv.), quid, as to anything, in anything, at all, freq.; sī quid, if at all, freq.

super: (adv.), above, 4.684, et al.; above, from above, 10.384; moreover, 4.606; besides, 1.29; more than enough, 2.642; remaining, surviving, left (with ellipsis of esse), 3.489, et al.; still (or above), 4.684; of time, in, during, 9.61.

hālitus, ūs, m.: a breathing; breath, 4.684; exhalation, vapor, 6.240. (hālō)

ēvādō, vāsī, vāsus, 3, n. and a.: to go out, forth, or up; ascend, 2.458; come in flight, 2.531; come forth from, w. the idea of danger surmounted; (w. acc.), to escape the dangers of, 2.731; escape, 5.689; 6.425; w. dat., 11.702; 9.99.

sēmianimis (in hexam. poetry pron. semyanimis), e: (adj.), half alive; dying, 4.686.

amplector, amplexus sum, 3, dep. a.: to embrace, clasp, 3.607; wind, pass around, 5.86; encircle, coil around, 2.214; (fig.), comprehend, embrace, in description.

foveō, fōvī, fōtus, 2, a.: to keep warm; (fig.), foster, protect, cherish, 1.281; soothe, 12.420; caress, make love to, 1.718; rest, incline, 10.838; to toy away, enjoy, 4.193; cherish, hope, long, desire, 1.18.

āter, tra, trum: (adj.), black; dark, gloomy, 1.60, et al.; smoky, lurid, 7.456; 4.384; clotted, dark, 3.622; soiled, blackened, 2.272; (fig.), sad, fatal, 6.429; venomous, deadly; of the odor of smoke, 12.591.

siccō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to make dry, drain, suck; dry up, wipe away, 4.687; wash, 10.834. (siccus)

attollō, 3, a.: to lift or raise up, throw, cast up, 3.574; rear, build, 2.185; (fig.), to rouse, excite, 2.381; with se, lift one’s self or itself, 4.690; come into view, appear, 3.205; (fig.), arise, be exalted, 4.49; (pass.), attollī, to rise, 5.127. (ad and tollō)

īnfīgō, fīxī, fīxus, 3, a.: to fasten in or upon, w. dat. or abl., 1.45, et al; thrust, 12.721; p., īnfīxus, a, um, thrust deeply, deep, 4.689.

strīdeō, 2, n., and strīdō, strīdī, 3: to produce a grating or shrill sound; to creak, 1.449; gurgle, 4.689; rustle, 1.397; whiz, roar, 1.102; hiss, 8.420; twang, 5.502.

ter: (num. adv.), thrice, three times, 1.94, et al. (trēs)

cubitum, ī, n.: the elbow, 4.690. (cubō, lie down)

adnītor, nīsus or nīxus sum, 3, dep. n.: to press upon; (with dat.), lean against, 12.92; lean, rest upon, 4.690; alone, make effort, strive, 5.226; ply the oars, 4.583.

levō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to render light; lighten; lift, aid, 1.145; raise, 4.690; (fig.), ease, relieve of (w. abl.); support, rest, 10.834; reënforce, help, 2.452; mitigate, 3.36; allay, 7.495; cure, 7.755; relieve, 7.571. (2. levis)

revolvō, volvī, volūtus, 3, a.: to roll back, 5.336; (fig.), bring back, recall, repeat, 2.101; retrace, 9.391; go over again, suffer again, 10.61; turn, change again, 6.449; (pass.), revolvor, fall back, fall down, 9.476; p., revolūtus, a, um, rolling, 10.660; returning, following, 10.256.

ingemō, uī, itus, 3, n. and a.: to sigh or groan, 1.93; (w. acc.), groan for; lament, bewail.

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Suggested Citation

Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/vergil-aeneid/vergil-aeneid-iv-659-692