Vergil, Aeneid II 588-623

Tālia iactābam et furiātā mente ferēbar,

cum mihi sē, nōn ante oculīs tam clāra, videndam

obtulit et pūrā per noctem in lūce refulsit590

alma parēns, cōnfessa deam quālisque vidērī

caelicolīs et quanta solet, dextrāque prehēnsum

continuit roseōque haec īnsuper addidit ōre:

'Nāte, quis indomitās tantus dolor excitat īrās?

Quid furis? Aut quōnam nostrī tibi cūra recessit?595

Nōn prius aspiciēs ubi fessum aetāte parentem

līqueris Anchīsēn, superet coniūnxne Creǖsa

Ascaniusque puer? Quōs omnēs undique Grāiae

circum errant aciēs et, nī mea cūra resistat,

iam flammae tulerint inimīcus et hauserit ēnsis.600

Nōn tibi Tyndaridis faciēs invīsa Lacaenae

culpātusve Paris, dīvum inclēmentia, dīvum

hās ēvertit opēs sternitque ā culmine Trōiam.

Aspice (namque omnem, quae nunc obducta tuentī

mortālēs hebetat vīsūs tibi et ūmida circum605

cālīgat, nūbem ēripiam; tū nē qua parentis

iussa timē neu praeceptīs pārēre recūsā):

hīc, ubi disiectās mōlēs āvulsaque saxīs

saxa vidēs, mixtōque undantem pulvere fūmum,

Neptūnus mūrōs magnōque ēmōta tridentī610

fūndāmenta quatit tōtamque ā sēdibus urbem

ēruit. hīc Iūnō Scaeās saevissima portās

prīma tenet sociumque furēns ā nāvibus agmen

ferrō accīncta vocat.

Iam summās arcēs Trītōnia, respice, Pallas615

īnsēdit nimbō effulgēns et Gorgone saeva.

Ipse pater Danaīs animōs vīrēsque secundās

sufficit, ipse deōs in Dardana suscitat arma.

Ēripe, nāte, fugam fīnemque impōne labōrī;

nusquam aberō et tūtum patriō tē līmine sistam.'620

Dīxerat et spissīs noctis sē condidit umbrīs.

Appārent dīrae faciēs inimīcaque Trōiae

nūmina magna deum.

Manuscripts: M 589-605, 606-623 | P 589-598, 599-621, 622-623

At that moment my mother appeared, calmed my rage, bade me look for my father, wife, and son, showed me that the overthrow of Troy was the work not of man but of Heaven, and revealed to me the bodily presence of Neptune, Juno, Pallas, and Jupiter himself, helping in the work of destruction (Conington).

588: tālia iactābam: supply dicta with tālia (Pharr). The verb expresses the idea of incoherency and excitement (Carter). ferēbar: like English “I was carried away” (Comstock); “I was rushing [to slay her]” (Page). Describes the overpowering effect of his rage, “my passion was strong upon me” (Sidgwick).

589–591: cum…obtulit: = cum [mea] alma parēns nōn ante tam clāra [meīs] oculīs obtulit sē mihi videndam (Pharr). Aeneas had never before seen her so bright, so completely in her true goddess form (Conington). mihi sē videndam obtulit: = mihi sē obtulit ut vidērem (Conington): “she presented herself in visible presence to me” (G-K); “she stood revealed before me.” Pronouns are often thus grouped, for contrast or emphasis (Comstock). mihi is dative of agent (AG 374) with videndam. nōn: = numquam (Constock). ante: = anteā (H-H). We do not know on what occasions Venus had previously appeared to her son. The appearance mentioned in Book 1.314 ff., occurred of course later at Carthage (Carter).

590: pūrā in lūce: Servius explains: in nimbō, quī cum nūminibus semper est (Conington), i.e., not in that cloud or mist which usually shrouds a divinity (G-K). per noctem: needless to say, is not inconsistent with line 569 (dant clāra incendia lūcem…), as the blaze would still leave darkness enough to render Venus’ appearance conspicuous (Conington). refulsit: “shone out” (Page).     

591: confessa deam: not for confessa sē deam esse, but deam is boldly put as the direct accusative after confessa— “acknowledging [i.e., revealing] the goddess” (Page); supply sē esse, “revealing that she was a goddess” (Howson).

591–592: quālisque…quanta solet: supply tālis (G-K): “fair and stately, [such] as the gods behold her,” literally “such in appearance and [great] stature as she is wont…” (Comstock); “fair and majestic, as god and goddess see her” (Howson); “as beauteous and stately [as] she ever appears to the dwellers in heaven”: not merely superior beauty but superior size (quanta) always characterizes the ancient gods and heroes (Page).

592: caelicolīs: dative of agent (AG 374) with vidērī (Pharr). dextrā prehēnsum continuit: supply ; “grasped me by my right hand and held me back” (Pharr). Venus seizes the hand with which Aeneas was laying hold of his sword. The circumstance may also have some significance as denoting the fullness of the revelation, unlike that in 1.408, where Aeneas complains: cūr dextrae iungere dextram nōn datur, “why is it not granted [us] to join right hand to right hand?” (Conington).

593: roseō ōre: “from her rosy lips” (Conington); compare 1.402, roseā cervice (H-H). haec: supply dicta (Pharr). īnsuper addidit: this and similar expressions are common in Vergil where speech follows action of any kind (Conington).

594: Quis…tantus dolor…? ”what great indignation (or “fury” (Comstock)) is this which…”: a very common Latin form of expression (G-K). Quis is the irregular form of the interrogative adjective quī (AG 148, 149) (Pharr). Dolor, “indignation” felt as a sudden pang or sting (G-K). īrās: supply tuās (Pharr).

595: aut quōnam…recessit: notice the force of -nam; the emphasis on the question gives it the tone of a reproof (G-K): “whither has fled your love for me?” (Storr). Nostrī is objective genitive (AG 348) with cūra. The next sentence immediately makes clear that “care for me” means: if he cares for his mother, Aeneas must show some regard for his father (Page). nostrī cūra: “concern for me [and mine]”; “consideration for me”; Venus thus identifies herself with the family of Aeneas (Pharr). Aeneas, by his despair (line 559), showed that he had lost faith in the power of his mother to help him (Howson). tibi: ethical dative (AG 380) or dative of reference (AG 378) (Pharr) with cūra, i.e., “the love you have” (Comstock).

596: nōn aspiciēs: nōn = nōnne (Pharr); aspicere used in the sense of paying attention to a thing (Conington). The negative future is often used in exhortations (Carter). prius: “first,” i.e., “before” doing or thinking of anything else (Page). ubi: i.e., “in what position” or “plight” (Page); “in what condition” (Pharr). fessum aetāte: contains the same notion as aevō gravior (line 435) (Conington); aetāte is ablative of respect / specification (AG 418) or cause (AG 404).

596–597: ubi…līqueris Anchīsēn: indirect question (AG 574) dependent on aspiciēs (Pharr); “where you left Anchises”; the real meaning being, “where he, whom you left at home, may be now” (Conington). līqueris is perfect subjunctive of linquō, indicating a prior action in primary sequence (AG 575).

597: superet coniunxne: superet = supersit: “whether your wife survives” (Chase). Indirect question dependent on aspiciēs; the direct question would be superatne coniunx? (Page).

598–599: quōs omnēs…circum: = circum quōs omnēs (Pharr), anastrophe (AG 640). Circum errant denotes that the enemy is constantly passing backwards and forwards, and suggests that they may at last by mere chance light upon their victims (Conington).

599: nī…resistat…tulerint: nī = nisi (Carter); supply eōs (Pharr); “did not my care withstand [them], the flames would have destroyed…” (Page). We have here the present subjunctive in the protasis, and the perfect in the apodosis, where we should have expected the imperfect and the pluperfect subjunctives. Resistat expresses that the danger and consequently the guardianship (mea cūra) are not over. Tulerint and hauserit, for the sake of liveliness, speak of the destruction as already a thing of the past (Conington): “my present resistance alone prevents the present completion of their destruction” (Chase).

600: hauserit: supply eōs (Pharr). We should say “devoured” here, though we talk of a sword “drinking blood” (Page); “drained the blood of” (Storr); “would have drawn their blood” (Carter). Haurīre, of a weapon or other offensive agent, probably as “devouring” flesh or “drinking” blood, a Lucretian expression and not uncommon in Ovid (Conington).

601: nōn Tyndaridis faciēs: understand hās opēs ēvertit. Tyndaris, Tyndaridis, “the daughter of Tyndarus”, i.e Helen (Pharr). tibi: ethical dative (AG 380) or dative of reference (AG 378) depending on ēvertit Troiam and expressing the person affected with emotion (here of grief) by the overthrow (Chase): “it is not, I tell you,…” (Page); “it is not, as you think” (Comstock). It is not Helen that you should hate, or Paris that you should blame. Not that they are guiltless, but their guilt only fulfils the divine decree (G-K). Lacaenae: “the Laconian woman,” i.e., Helen, Sparta being the metropolis of Laconia (Sidgwick).

602: culpātus Paris: supply est (Carter) and ā tē, “Paris, detested [by you]” (Storr); “nor guilty Paris” (Sidgwick); “Paris, whom you and others blame” (Conington).  Helen and Paris are but the instruments of the unseen forces now destroying the city (Storr). dīvum…dīvum: = dīv[ōr]um by syncope. “[but] it is the relentless will of the gods, yea, of the gods, that…” (Comstock). Note the force of the repeated dīvum (anaphora, AG 641): the emphasis placed on this word makes the omission of “but” before it possible (Page).

603: ēvertit, sternit: faciēs (601), Paris (602), and inclementia (602) are the nominative subjects of these verbs (Comstock), singular to agree with their nearest subject inclementia. We must remember that Aeneas had just witnessed the destruction of Priam’s palace (Conington). ā culmine: “from the top to the bottom,” “completely” (H-H). Compare line 290: ruit altō ā culmine Troia (Conington).

604: aspice: is connected with 608 hīc… (Page). In order that he may obey her commands and leave the city, Venus quickens his vision so that he sees that Troy is doomed because the gods are aiding in its destruction, Neptune (610), Juno (612), Minerva (615), and even Jupiter himself (617) (Carter). Aeneas knew that the tutelary gods of Troy had left their temples (line 351); he now learns that there are heavenly powers actually arrayed aganst Troy (Conington).

604–606: namque…ēripiam: = namque ēripiam omnem nūbem, quae nunc obducta hebetat mortalēs vīsūs tibi tuentī, et [ēripiam omnem nūbem quae] ūmida circum [tē], “for all the cloud that now drawn over your sight dulls your mortal vision and with dank darkness surrounds you— behold! I will remove it.” Similarly in Iliad 5.127, Pallas takes the scales from Diomedes’ eyes, though with a different object, that he may distinguish mortals from immortals in the battle (Storr); compare also 2 Kings 6:17: “And the Lord opened the eyes of the young man; and he saw, and behold the mountain was full of chariots of fire…” (Page). obducta: “overdrawn” like a veil (Comstock); “drawn over,” “shrouding” your gaze: ob- is often in compounds so used, as obeō, occulō, obtegō, obscūrus, etc. (Sidgwick). tuentī: supply tibi: “[drawn] over you as you look” (G-K).

605: tibi: dative of reference (AG 376) with hebetat vīsūs (Pharr).

605–606: ūmida circum cālīgat: = [quae] ūmida circum [tē] cālīgat, “which spreads a dark veil of mist around [you]” (Pharr); “spreads its dark pall around” (Storr); “lies dark and dank around you” (Comstock). The adjective with the words that it belongs to in sense (Sidgwick).

606: tū: emphatic (Pharr); “do you not,” no matter what others do (H-H).

606–607: nē timē, neu recūsā: i.e., do not fear to look at anything I show you, or hesitate to do [by my direction] what is still in your power (G-K). Prohibitions expressed by (neu) with the present imperative are chiefly poetical (Bennett). In prose negative imperatives are normally formed with nōlī[te] + infinitive (nōlī timēre, nōlī recūsāre) or with + perfect subjunctive (nē timueris, nē recūsāveris) (AG 450). Venus was evidently afraid that Aeneas, terrified by the sudden vision of Neptune, Juno, and Pallas fighting openly against Troy, would abandon himself to despair (Howson).  parentis: i.e., Venus, his mother (Carter).

607: praeceptīs: dative with special verb pārēre (AG 367) (Pharr). mōlēs: “walls” (Comstock).

608–609: āvulsaque saxīs saxa: “and rocks rent from rocks”; saxīs, ablative of separation (AG 381) (H-H).

609: mixtōque pulvere fūmum: a common Vergilian variation for mixtumque pulvere fūmum (Sidgwick): “and the smoke mingled with dust”; the dust is from the falling houses (Page). undantem: “rolling in billows” (H-H); the columns of smoke rolling upward are likened to the waves of the sea (Carter).

610–612: Neptūnus…ēruit: in his role as “the Earth-Shaker” (Page). Neptune and Apollo had built the walls of Troy for Laomedon, father of Priam. When the work was finished, Laomedon not only refused to pay the gods the price agreed upon, but expelled them from his kingdom. Neptune is now getting his revenge by destroying the very walls he had built (Pharr). The picture of Neptune overthrowing the walls with his trident is taken from a curious passage, Iliad 12.27 ff., speaking of the destruction of the unblessed rampart of the Greeks by Poseidon, in connexion with Apollo and Zeus, after the fall of Troy. (Conington).

610: magnō ēmōta tridentī: belongs really to mūrōs as well as to fundamenta, though grammatically only to the latter (Conington). The trident, or course, was Neptune’s natural implement (Carter); ablative of means / instrument (AG 409).

612: Scaeās portās: The “Scaean Gate,” from σκαιός, “left” or “west,” hence the gate looking westward to the sea, for the Greek augur when he divined looked north, and hence “west” or “left” were with him synonymous (H-H). This point, as being nearest to the Greek camp and fleet, would be the centre of the conflict (Howson). saevissima: “fiercest foe” to the Trojans as she always was (Sidgwick).

613: Iūnō prīma: “Juno foremost” or “in front” (Chase); “Juno, leading the onset” or “in the van”: the force of the word is made clear by what follows: she is leading the way while she “summons her confederate host” to follow her. Conington with less force explains “at the entrance of the gate” (Page). socium agmen: supply Danaōrum (Pharr), “her confederate host” (Comstock), i.e., the Greeks who are still pouring from the ships (G-K).

614: vocat: with the idea of encouragement (Carter). Juno calls to her Greek confederates, as in Iliad 20.48 ff. Athena calls to the Greeks and Ares to the Trojans (Conington).

615: iam: “already.” The sense is, it has already gone so far that even Pallas, the former protectress of Troy, sits as an enemy on the pinnacle of the citadel (Chase). summās arcēs: governed by īnsēdit (G-K): “has taken her stand on the citadel” (Comstock). Arcēs were always sacred to Athena (Carter). Like Neptune (line 610), Pallas presides over the destruction of that which she ordinarily protects. In Iliad 5.460 Apollo takes his seat on the height of Pergamos, to defend it (Conington). respice: “look back at.” Aeneas on his way home had already left the citadel and was now below it (Carter).

616: nimbō effulgēns et Gorgone saevā: “lightning from her storm-cloud and with Gorgon grim.” (Comstock). The aegis of Pallas is symbolical of storm. The head of Medusa was set in the center of the aegis or breastplate (Storr). Nimbō is probably referring to the divine effulgence surrounding the gods when they appeared to mortals, which is the origin of the technical nimbus or aureole of later times (G-K); “a halo” (Howson). Effulgēns, “gleaming,” a not uncommon conception of the divinities (G-K). The nimbus naturally goes with the Gorgon, as the aegis is really the whirlwind that drives the storm-cloud. The brightness of the storm-cloud may be accounted for, if not by the lurid glare of the conflagration, at any rate by the lightning which it would naturally emit. So Pallas, who carries the aegis of Zeus, wields also Zeus’ lightning (Conington).

617: ipse pater: = Iuppiter (Pharr). Note the skill with which the poet abstains from any attempt to point out or portray the figure of “the Father himself” (Page). vīrēsque secundās: “victorious might” (Storr); “the strength which brings success” (Carter); “auspicious” (Conington); “favorable,” i.e., “prosperous,” an unusual word such as Vergil delights in (Sidgwick).

618: sufficit: “supplies” (Chase). in: “against” (Pharr).

619: ēripe fugam:  “hasten your flight” (Comstock); “quickly secure flight.” His chance of flight was doubtful unless he quickly “snatched it out” of the hazards which environed him (Page). A stronger expression for cape fugam; hinting also at escape from peril (G-K). fīnemque impōne: “put an end to” (Conington). labōrī: i.e., “your useless struggle” (Comstock) or “resistance” (Carter).

620: nusquam aberō: i.e., “I will be ever at your side” (Comstock). līmine patriō: supply in, ablative of place where (AG 421): “at your father’s threshold,” “on your father’s doorstep” (Pharr); referring to the fact that Aeneas would be safey conducted to Italy, which was the original home of the Trojans (H-H).

621: dīxerat: “she ceased to speak,” literally “she had spoken” (Chase).

622: apparent: “are to my eyes disclosed” (Bennett). faciēs: “forms,” “shapes,” further explained by numina magna; -que is explanatory, not copulative (Bennett). inimīca nūmina: i.e., Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva (Howson). Take inimīca in the predicate, i.e “fighting against Troy” (Comstock).

623: nūmina magna deum: nūmina, as we might say “the powers,” is more emphatic here than , as it is the exertion of a superhuman power on which we are meant to dwell. The effect of the hemistich here is very grand, and it is not easy to see how Vergil could have improved the line by completing it. At any rate the effective brevity with which he dismisses in a line and a half what an inferior poet would have taken a paragraph to express is a memorable testimony to his judgment (Conington).


iactō, āvī, ātus, 1, freq. a.: to throw often or much; toss to and fro; toss, freq.; hurl, cast, 2.459; thrust out, 5.376; aim, 5.433; (fig.), throw out words, utter, say, 1.102; of the mind, revolve, meditate, 1.227; sē iactāre, boast, exalt one's self, rejoice, glory, 1.140; prae sē iactāre, to make pretense of, 9.134; p., iactāns, antis, arrogant, assuming, ambitious, 6.815. (iaciō)

furiō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to madden, enrage, infuriate, 2.407. (furiae)

pūrus, a, um: (adj.), free from stain, pure, 7.489; clear, serene, 2.590; open, unobstructed, 12.771; unmixed, 6.746; pointless, 6.760; unmarked, without symbol, or device, 11.711.

refulgeō, fulsī, fulsus, 2, n.: to flash back; shine forth, flash, be radiant, 1.402; glitter, glisten, 6.204.

almus, a, um: adj. (alō), giving nourishment; fostering, genial, blessing, blessed, benign, 1.306; fruitful; gracious, kind, kindly, propitious, 7.774.

caelicola, ae, c.: an inhabitant of heaven; a god, 2.641, et al. (caelum and colō)

prehendō (prēndō), ī, ēnsus, 3, a.: to lay hold of; seize, 2.592; catch, 3.450; seize, hold for defense, 2.322; overtake, reach, 6.61.

roseus, a, um: adj. (rosa), pertaining to roses; rose-colored; rosy, 1.402.

īnsuper: (adv.), above, over, upon, 1.61; moreover, 2.593; (prep. w. abl.), besides, 9.274.

indomitus, a, um: (adj.), untamed; unbridled, 2.594; impetuous, fierce, 2.440.

excitō, āvī, ātus, 1, intens. a.: to rouse up completely; excite, awaken, arouse, 2.594; alarm, 2.728; stimulate, impel, 3.343. (exciō)

furō, uī, 3, n.: to be mad; freq., to rave, be frantic, rage, 1.491; to be furious, burn, storm (for war), 7.625; to be burning or mad with love, 1.659; to be frenzied, in a frenzy, 6.100; inspired, 2.345; distracted with grief, 3.313; plunge madly, 9.552; boil, 7.464; with cognate acc., give vent to one's fury, 12.680.

quōnam: (emphatic interrog. adv.), whither, pray? whither? where? 2.595.

recēdō, cessī, cessus, 3, n.: to go back, retire, withdraw, 12.129; recede, retreat, 2.633; stand apart, retire, 2.300; depart, 2.595; disappear, 3.72; vanish, 5.526.

linquō, līquī, 3, a.: to leave, 1.517, and freq.; desert, abandon, flee from, 3.213; pass by, 3.705; depart from, leave, 3.124; of death, yield up, 3.140; give up or over, desist from, 3.160.

Anchīsēs, ae, m.: son of Capys and Themis, and father of Aeneas by Venus, 2.687, et al.

Creūsa, ae, f.: the wife of Aeneas, and daughter of Priam, 2.562.

Ascanius, iī, m.: Ascanius, son of Aeneas, and traditional founder of Alba Longa, 1.267.

Grāius, a, um (dissyl.): (adj.), Greek, Greek, 2.598; subs., Grāius, iī, m., a Greek, 3.594.

circum: (adv.), about, around; (prep. with acc.), around, about.

resistō, stitī, 3, n.: to remain standing; stand revealed, 1.588; oppose, withstand, resist, 2.335; interpose, 2.599; halt, stop, falter, 4.76.

hauriō, hausī, haustus, 4, a.: to draw any fluid, 9.23; drink; drain, 1.738; draw blood with a weapon; devour, slay, 2.600; pierce, 10.314; take in with the eyes or ears; receive, 12.26; perceive, see, 4.661; hear, 4.359; strain, thrill, 5.137; suffer, 4.383; conceive, 10.648.

ēnsis, is, m.: a sword, 2.393, et al.; knife, 2.155.

Tyndaris, idis, f.: a daughter of Tyndarus; Helen, 2.569.

invīsus, a, um: hated, hateful, odious, 1.387; (act.), inimical, an enemy, hostile, 11.364.

Lacaena, ae, adj. f.: Lacedaemonian or Spartan; subst., the Spartan woman; Helen, 2.601.

culpō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to blame; p., culpātus, a, um, at fault; blameable; the guilty cause, 2.602. (culpa)

Paris, idis, m.: Paris, son of Priam and Hecuba, who occasioned the Trojan war by carrying off Helen from Sparta; slain by the arrow of Philoctetes, 4.215, et al.

inclēmentia, ae, f.: unkindness; inclemency, cruelly, severity, 2.602. (inclēmēns, unkind)

ēvertō, vertī, versus, 3, a.: to upturn, 1.43; overthrow, demolish, destroy, 2.603.

sternō, strāvī, strātus, 3, a.: to spread out, spread, 1.700; stretch on the ground, strike down, slay, 1.190; cast down, prostrate, devastate, 2.306; make level, smooth, calm, 5.763; spread, cover, 8.719; strew, litter; overthrow, conquer, 6.858; pass. (in middle sense), sternor, ī, to stretch one's self, lie down, 3.509.

culmen, inis, n.: a top, summit, height, 2.290; house top, ridge, roof, 2.458. (cf. columna)

Trōia, ae, f.: 1. Troy, the capital of the Troad, 2.625, et al. 2. A city built by Helenus in Epirus, 3.349. 3. A part of the city of Acesta in Sicily, 5.756. 4. The name of an equestrian game of Roman boys, 5.602.

obdūcō, dūxī, ductus, 3, a.: to draw or lead towards; draw over, 2.604.

tueor, tuitus or tūtus sum, 2, dep. a.: to look at, gaze upon, behold, regard, 4.451, et al.; watch, guard, defend, maintain, protect, 1.564, et al.; p., tūtus, a, um, secure, safe; in safety, 1.243; sure, 4.373; subst., tūtum, ī, n., safety, place of safety, 1.391; pl., tūta, ōrum, safe places, safety, security, 11.882; adv., tūtō, with safety, safely, without danger, 11.381.

hebetō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to make blunt; to make dull; to impair, dim, obscure, 2.605. (hebes, blunt)

vīsus, ūs, m.: a seeing; vision, sight, 4.277; a phenomenon, spectacle, appearance, sight, 2.212; aspect, 11.271; prodigy, 3.36. (videō)

ūmidus, a, um: adj. (ūmeō), moist, wet, damp, dewy, 2.8, et al.; liquid, 4.486.

cālīgō, āre, 1, a. and n.: to be dark, darken, 2.606. (> cālīgō 1)

nūbēs, is, f.: a cloud, 1.516, et al.; storm, 10.809; the air, 12.856; (fig.), flock, multitude, 7.705.

quis, qua or quae, quid or quod: (indef. pron., adj., and subst.), any, some, 2.94, et al.; some one, any one, any body, anything, something, 1.413, et al.; sī quis, nē quis, etc., if any, lest any, etc., freq.; (adv.), quid, as to anything, in anything, at all, freq.; sī quid, if at all, freq.

iussum, ī, n.: a thing ordered; command, injunction, order, 1.77, et al. (iubeō)

nēve or neu: (conj.), or not, and not, nor, neither, w. subj. or imperat., 7.202; ne — neu (nēve), that not — nor, lest — or lest, 2.188.

recūsō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to bring a reason against; object; reject, decline, 5.417; refuse, 2.607; shrink back, recoil, 5.406. (re- and causa)

dīsiciō, iēcī, iectus, 3, a.: to throw, cast asunder; overthrow, demolish, 8.355; scatter, disperse, 1.70; cleave, 12.308. (dis- and iaciō)

mōlēs, is, f.: a cumbrous mass; a heavy pile or fabric; mound, rampart, 9.35; dike, 2.497; a mass of buildings, vast buildings, 1.421; structure, 11.130; frame or figure, 2.32; bulk, 5.118; weight, 7.589; pile, mass, 1.61; gigantic frame, 5.431; warlike engine, siege tower, 5.439; array, pomp, train, 12.161; body of soldiers, phalanx, 12.575; heavy storm, tempest, 5.790; toil, work, labor, 1.33.

āvellō, vellī or vulsī, vulsus, 3, a.: to pluck, or tear off, or away from, with acc. and abl., take away, steal, 2.165; to force away, 11.201; p., avulsus, a, um, torn from, 2.608; torn, rent, 3.575.

undō, āvī, ātus, 1, n.: to rise in waves; of flame, smoke, dust, etc., surge, 2.609; overflow, stream forth, burst forth, gush, 10.908; boil, seethe, 6.218; of lines or reins, hang free, flow, 5.146. (unda)

pulvis, eris, m., rarely f.: dust, 2.273; soil, ground, earth; dusty plain, 7.163.

fūmus, ī, m.: smoke, 2.609, et al.

Neptūnus, ī, m.: Neptune, one of the sons of Saturn, and brother of Jupiter, Juno, and Pluto; identified by the Romans, as god of the sea, with the Greek Poseidon, 1.125.

ēmoveō, mōvī, mōtus, 2, a.: to move off or away; throw off, start from, 2.493; dispel, relieve, 6.382; tear away, shatter, 2.610.

tridēns, entis: adj. (trēs and dēns), three-pronged, trident, 5.143; subst., tridēns, entis, m., a triple-pointed spear; trident, 1.138.

fundāmentum, ī, n.: a foundation, 4.266. (1. fundō)

quatiō, no perf., quassus, 3, a.: to shake, freq.; brandish, 11.767; flap, 3.226; shatter, 2.611; make tremble, 5.200; thrill, penetrate, 3.30; ransack, beat up, search, scour, 11.513; torment, 6.571; assault, 9.608; spur, 12.338.

ēruō, ī, tus, 3, a.: to cast out or up; to overthrow, 2.5.

Iūnō, ōnis, f.: Juno, the Sabine and Roman name for the wife and sister of Jupiter, daughter of Saturn, 1.4, et al.; Iūnō īnferna, the Juno of the lower world, Proserpine, 6.138.

Scaea, ae: (adj.), western; Scaea Porta, and pl., Scaeae Portae, the Scaean or western gate of Troy, 2.612.

accingō, cīnxī, cīnctus (pass. inf., accingier, 4.493), 3, a.: to gird on; gird, 2.614; arm, equip, 6.184; make one’s self ready; prepare, 1.210; resort to, 4.493. (ad and cingō)

Trītōnius, a, um: adj. (Trītōn), pertaining to the lake Triton (see Trītōnis); Tritonian, an epithet of Pallas, 2.615, et al.; subst., Trītōnia, ae, Minerva, Tritonia, 2.171.

Pallas, adis, f.: Pallas Athena, identified by the Romans with Minerva, 1.39; rāmus Palladis, the bough sacred to Pallas, the olive, 7.154.

īnsideō, sēdī, sessus, 2, n. and a.: to sit or be seated on; w. dat., rest, recline upon, 1.719; settle on, 8.480; w. acc., occupy, hold, 2.616. (1. in and sedeō)

nimbus, ī, m.: a violent rain; storm, tempest, 1.51; a black cloud, thunder-cloud, cloud, 3.587; a bright cloud; the nimbus surrounding a god, 2.616; cloud of smoke, 5.666; a multitude, 7.793.

effulgeō, and effulgō, fulsī, 2, and 3, n.: to shine forth or brightly; be effulgent, 2.616; 8.677; glitter, be distinguished, conspicuous, 5.133. (ex and fulgeō)

Gorgō, onis: the common name of the three daughters of Phorcus, terrible on account of their snaky hair; especially, the head of the Gorgon on the shield of Minerva, 2.616.

Danaī, ōrum, m.: the Greeks, 2.327.

sufficiō, fēcī, fectus, 3, a. and n.: to make or produce underneath or within anything; dye; tinge, suffuse, 2.210; raise up, produce; supply, lend, afford, 2.618; to be adequate to, sufficient for; strong enough, able, 5.22. (sub and faciō)

Dardanus, a, um: (adj.), Trojan, 5.119; subst., the Dardanian; Aeneas, 4.662; the Trojan, for the nation, 11.287.

suscitō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to stir up, turn up; to rekindle, 5.743; rouse, incite, 2.618; call forth, 8.455.

nūsquam: (adv.), nowhere, 2.620; sometimes transf. to time; on no occasion; never, 5.853. (nē and ūsquam)

absum, āfuī or abfuī, āfutūrus or abfutūrus, abesse, irreg. n.: to be away; to be absent, 2.620; distant, 11.907; to be wanting, missing, 1.584; inf., āfore, or abfore, will be wanting, 8.147.

patrius, a, um: adj. (pater), pertaining to one's father or ancestors; a father's, 2.658; paternal, natural to a father, 1.643; exacted by a father, 7.766; due to, felt for a father or parent, 9.294; ancestral, hereditary, 3.249; of one's country, native, 3.281; belonging to the nation, of the country, 11.374.

sistō, stitī, status, 3, a. and n.: to cause to stand, put, set, place, w. abl. of place, 2.245, et al.; place before one, bring, 4.634; fix, plant, 10.323; stop, 12.355; arrest, stay, 6.465; support, sustain, maintain, 6.858; set, place, 6.676; n., stand still, to stop, remain, abide, 3.7; stand in fight, 11.873.

spissus, a, um: (adj.), compact, thick, dense, 2.621; hardened, 5.336.

dīrus, a, um: (adj.), accursed; portentous; fearful, dreadful, awful, dire, cruel, horrible, freq.; accursed, 2.261; unhallowed, impious, 6.373; foul, carrion, 3.262; wild, furious, ardent, 9.185; pl., dīra (adv.), fearfully, 10.572.

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Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5.