Caesar

Caesar BG 5.24 read aloud (CF)

Subductīs nāvibus, conciliōque Gallōrum Samarobrīvae perāctō, quod eō annō frūmentum in Galliā propter siccitātēs angustius prōvēnerat, coāctus est aliter āc superiōribus annīs exercitum in hībernīs collocāre, legiōnēsque in plūrēs cīvitātēs distribuere. Ex quibus ūnam in Morinōs dūcendam C. Fabiō lēgātō dedit, alteram in Nerviōs Q. Cicerōnī, tertiam in Esubiōs L. Rōsciō; quārtam in Rēmīs cum T. Labiēnō in cōnfīniō Trēverōrum hiemāre iussit. Trēs in Belgīs collocāvit: eīs M. Crassum quaestōrem et L. Munātium Plancum et C. Trebōnium lēgātōs praefēcit. Ūnam legiōnem, quam proximē trāns Padum cōnscrīpserat, et cohortēs V in Ebūrōnēs, quōrum pars māxima est inter Mosam āc Rhēnum, quī sub imperiō Ambiorīgis et Catuvolcī erant, mīsit. Eīs mīlitibus Q. Titūrium Sabīnum et L. Aurunculēium Cottam lēgātōs praeesse iussit. Ad hunc modum distribūtīs legiōnibus facillimē inopiae frūmentāriae sēsē medērī posse exīstimāvit. Atque hārum tamen omnium legiōnum hīberna, praeter eam quam L. Rōsciō in pācātissimam et quiētissimam partem dūcendam dederat, mīlibus passuum centum continēbantur. Ipse intereā, quoad legiōnēs collocātās mūnītaque hīberna cōgnōvisset, in Galliā morārī cōnstituit.

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Caesar BG 4.35-6 read aloud (CF)

Quibus rēbus perturbātīs nostrīs nōvitāte pūgnae tempore opportūnissimō Caesar auxilium tulit: namque ēius adventū hostēs cōnstitērunt, nostrī sē ex timōre recēpērunt. Quō factō, ad lacēssendum hostem et committendum proelium aliēnum esse tempus arbitrātus suō sē locō continuit et, brevī tempore intermīssō, in castra legiōnēs redūxit. Dum haec geruntur, nostrīs omnibus occupātīs, quī erant in agrīs reliquī discessērunt. Secūtae sunt continuōs complūrēs diēs tempestātēs quae et nostrōs in castrīs continērent et hostem ā pūgnā prohibērent. Interim barbarī nūntiōs in omnēs partēs dīmīsērunt paucitātemque nostrōrum mīlitum suīs praedicāvērunt et quanta praedae faciendae atque in perpetuum suī līberandī facultās darētur, sī Rōmānōs castrīs expulissent, dēmōnstrāvērunt. Hīs rēbus celeriter māgnā multitūdine peditātūs equitātūsque coāctā ad castra vēnērunt.

Eōdem diē lēgātī ab hostibus mīssī ad Caesarem dē pāce vēnērunt.

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Caesar BG 4.34 read aloud (CF)

Quibus rēbus perturbātīs nostrīs nōvitāte pūgnae tempore opportūnissimō Caesar auxilium tulit: namque ēius adventū hostēs cōnstitērunt, nostrī sē ex timōre recēpērunt. Quō factō, ad lacēssendum hostem et committendum proelium aliēnum esse tempus arbitrātus suō sē locō continuit et, brevī tempore intermīssō, in castra legiōnēs redūxit. Dum haec geruntur, nostrīs omnibus occupātīs, quī erant in agrīs reliquī discessērunt. Secūtae sunt continuōs complūrēs diēs tempestātēs quae et nostrōs in castrīs continērent et hostem ā pūgnā prohibērent. Interim barbarī nūntiōs in omnēs partēs dīmīsērunt paucitātemque nostrōrum mīlitum suīs praedicāvērunt et quanta praedae faciendae atque in perpetuum suī līberandī facultās darētur, sī Rōmānōs castrīs expulissent, dēmōnstrāvērunt. Hīs rēbus celeriter māgnā multitūdine peditātūs equitātūsque coāctā ad castra vēnērunt.

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Caesar BG 4.33 read aloud (CF)

Genus hōc est ex essedīs pūgnae. Prīmō per omnēs partēs perequitant et tēla cōiciunt atque ipsō terrōre equōrum et strepitū rotārum ōrdinēs plērumque perturbant et, cum sē inter equitum turmās īnsinuāvērunt, ex essedīs dēsiliunt et pedibus proeliantur. Aurīgae interim paulātim ex proeliō excēdunt atque ita currūs collocant ut, sī illī ā multitūdine hostium premantur, expedītum ad suōs receptum habeant. Ita mōbilitātem equitum, stabilitātem peditum in proeliīs praestant, āc tantum ūsū cotīdiānō et exercitātiōne efficiunt utī in dēclīvī āc praecipitī locō incitātōs equōs sustinēre et brevī moderārī āc flectere et per tēmōnem percurrere et in iugō īnsistere et sē inde in currūs citissimē recipere cōnsuērint.

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Caesar BG 4.32 read aloud (CF)

Dum ea geruntur, legiōne ex cōnsuētūdine ūnā frūmentātum mīssā quae appellābātur septima, neque ūllā ad id tempus bellī suspīciōne interpositā, cum pars hominum in agrīs remanēret, pars etiam in castra ventitāret, eī quī prō portīs castrōrum in statiōne erant Caesarī nūntiāvērunt pulverem māiōrem quam cōnsuētūdō ferret in eā parte vidērī quam in partem legiō iter fēcisset. Caesar id quod erat suspicātus, aliquid novī ā barbarīs initum cōnsilī, cohortēs quae in statiōnibus erant sēcum in eam partem proficīscī, ex reliquīs duās in statiōnem succēdere, reliquās armārī et cōnfestim sēsē subsequī iussit. Cum paulō longius ā castrīs prōcessisset, suōs ab hostibus premī atque aegrē sustinēre et cōnfertā legiōne ex omnibus partibus tēla cōicī animadvertit. Nam quod omnī ex reliquīs partibus dēmessō frūmentō pars ūna erat reliqua, suspicātī hostēs hūc nostrōs esse ventūrōs noctū in silvīs dēlituerant; tum dispersōs, dēpositīs armīs in metendō occupātōs subitō adortī, paucīs interfectīs reliquōs incertīs ōrdinibus perturbāverant, simul equitātū atque essedīs circumdederant.

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Caesar BG 4.31 read aloud (CF)

At Caesar, etsī nōndum eōrum cōnsilia cōgnōverat, tamen et ex ēventū nāvium suārum et ex eō quod obsidēs dare intermīserant fore id quod accīdit suspicābātur. Itaque ad omnēs cāsūs subsidia comparābat. Nam et frūmentum ex agrīs cotīdiē in castra cōnferēbat et, quae gravissimē adflīctae erant nāvēs, eārum māteriā atque aere ad reliquās reficiendās ūtēbātur et quae ad eās rēs erant ūsuī ex continentī comportārī iubēbat. Itaque, cum summō studiō ā mīlitibus administrārētur, XII nāvibus āmīssīs, reliquīs ut nāvigārī satis commodē posset effēcit.

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Caesar BG 4.30 read aloud (CF)

Quibus rēbus cōgnitīs, prīncipēs Britanniae, quī post proelium ad Caesarem convēnerant, inter sē conlocūtī, cum equitēs et nāvēs et frūmentum Rōmānīs deësse intellegerent et paucitātem mīlitum ex castrōrum exiguitāte cōgnōscerent, quae hōc erant etiam angustiōra quod sine impedīmentīs Caesar legiōnēs trānsportāverat, optimum factū esse dūxērunt, rebelliōne factā, frūmentō commeātūque nostrōs prohibēre et rem in hiemem prōdūcere, quod eīs superātīs aut reditū interclūsīs nēminem posteā bellī īnferendī causā in Britanniam trānsitūrum cōnfīdēbant. Itaque, rūrsus coniūrātiōne factā, paulātim ex castrīs discēdere āc suōs clam ex agrīs dēdūcere coepērunt.

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Caesar BG 4.29 read aloud (CF)

Eādem nocte accidit ut esset lūna plēna, quī diēs maritimōs aestūs māximōs in Ōceanō efficere cōnsuēvit, nostrīsque id erat incōgnitum. Ita ūnō tempore et longās nāvēs, quibus Caesar exercitum trānsportandum cūrāverat quāsque in āridum subdūxerat, aestus complēverat et onerāriās, quae ad ancorās erant dēligātae, tempestās adflīctābat, neque ūlla nostrīs facultās aut administrandī aut auxiliandī dabātur. Complūribus nāvibus frāctīs, reliquae cum essent fūnibus, ancorīs, reliquīsque armāmentīs āmīssīs ad nāvigandum inūtilēs, māgna, id quod necesse erat accidere, tōtīus exercitūs perturbātiō facta est. Neque enim nāvēs erant aliae quibus reportārī possent, et omnia deërant quae ad reficiendās nāvēs erant ūsuī et, quod omnibus cōnstābat hiemāre in Galliā oportēre, frūmentum hīs in locīs in hiemem prōvīsum nōn erat.

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Caesar BG 4.28 read aloud (CF)

Hīs rēbus pāce cōnfīrmātā, post diem quartum quam est in Britanniam ventum nāvēs XVIII, dē quibus suprā dēmōnstrātum est, quae equitēs sustulerant, ex superiōre portū lēnī ventō solvērunt. Quae cum appropīnquārent Britanniae et ex castrīs vidērentur, tanta tempestās subitō coörta est ut nūlla eārum cursum tenēre posset, sed aliae eōdem unde erant profectae referrentur, aliae ad īnferiōrem partem īnsulae, quae est propius sōlis occāsum, māgnō suī cum perīculō dēicerentur; quae tamen, ancorīs iactīs, cum fluctibus complērentur, necessāriō adversā nocte in altum prōvēctae, continentem petiērunt.

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Caesar BG 4.27 read aloud (CF)

Hostēs proeliō superātī, simul atque sē ex fugā recēpērunt, statim ad Caesarem lēgātōs dē pāce mīsērunt; obsidēs datūrōs quaeque imperāsset sēsē factūrōs pollicitī sunt. Ūnā cum hīs lēgātīs Commius Atrebās vēnit, quem suprā dēmōnstrāveram ā Caesare in Britanniam praemīssum. Hunc illī ē nāvī ēgressum, cum ad eōs ōrātōris modō Caesaris mandāta dēferret, comprehenderant atque in vincula coiēcerant: tum proeliō factō remīsērunt. In petendā pāce ēius reī culpam in multitūdinem coiēcērunt et propter imprūdentiam ut īgnōscerētur petīvērunt. Caesar questus quod, cum ūltrō in continentem lēgātīs mīssīs pācem ab sē petīssent, bellum sine causā intulissent, īgnōscere imprūdentiae dīxit obsidēsque imperāvit; quōrum illī partem statim dedērunt, partem ex longīnquiōribus locīs arcessītam paucīs diēbus sēsē datūrōs dīxērunt. Intereā suōs remigrāre in agrōs iussērunt, prīncipēsque undique convenīre et sē cīvitātēsque suās Caesarī commendāre coepērunt.

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Caesar BG 4.26 read aloud (CF)

Pūgnātum est ab utrīsque ācriter. Nostrī tamen, quod neque ōrdinēs servāre neque fīrmiter īnsistere neque sīgna subsequī poterant atque alius aliā ex nāvī quibuscumque sīgnīs occurrerat sē aggregābat, māgnopere perturbābantur; hostēs vērō, nōtīs omnibus vadīs, ubi ex lītore aliquōs singulārēs ex nāvī ēgredientēs cōnspēxerant, incitātīs equīs impedītōs adoriēbantur, plūrēs paucōs circumsistēbant, aliī ab latere apertō in ūniversōs tēla cōiciēbant. Quod cum animadvertisset Caesar, scaphās longārum nāvium, item speculātōria nāvigia mīlitibus complērī iussit et, quōs labōrantēs cōnspēxerat, hīs subsidia submittēbat. Nostrī, simul in āridō cōnstitērunt, suīs omnibus cōnsecūtīs, in hostēs impetum fēcērunt atque eōs in fugam dedērunt; neque longius prōsequī potuērunt, quod equitēs cursum tenēre atque īnsulam capere nōn potuerant. Hōc ūnum ad prīstinam fōrtūnam Caesarī dēfuit.

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Caesar BG 4.25 read aloud (CF)

Quod ubi Caesar animadvertit, nāvīs longās, quārum et speciēs erat barbarīs inūsitātior et mōtus ad ūsum expedītior, paulum removērī ab onerāriīs nāvibus et rēmīs incitārī et ad latus apertum hostium cōnstituī atque inde fundīs, sagittīs, tormentīs hostēs prōpellī āc submovērī iussit; quae rēs māgnō ūsuī nostrīs fuit. Nam et nāvium figūrā et rēmōrum mōtū et inūsitātō genere tormentōrum permōtī barbarī cōnstitērunt āc paulum modo pedem rettulērunt. Atque nostrīs mīlitibus cunctantibus, māximē propter altitūdinem maris, quī decimae legiōnis aquilam ferēbat, contestātus deōs, ut ea rēs legiōnī fēlīciter ēvenīret, ' Dēsilīte', inquit, ' mīlitēs, nisi vultis aquilam hostibus prōdere; ego certē meum reī pūblicae atque imperātōrī officium praestiterō.' Hōc cum vōce māgnā dīxisset, sē ex nāvī prōiēcit atque in hostēs aquilam ferre coepit. Tum nostrī cohortātī inter sē, nē tantum dēdecus admitterētur, ūniversī ex nāvī dēsiluērunt. Hōs item ex proximīs prīmī nāvibus cum cōnspēxissent, subsecūtī hostibus appropīnquārunt.

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Caesar BG 4.24 read aloud (CF)

At barbarī, cōnsiliō Rōmānōrum cōgnitō praemīssō equitātū et essedāriīs, quō plērumque genere in proeliīs ūtī cōnsuērunt, reliquīs cōpiīs subsecūtī nostrōs nāvibus ēgredī prohibēbant. Erat ob hās causās summa difficultās, quod nāvēs propter māgnitūdinem nisi in altō cōnstituī nōn poterant, mīlitibus autem, īgnōtīs locīs, impedītīs manibus, māgnō et gravī onere armōrum oppressīs, simul et dē nāvibus dēsiliendum et in fluctibus cōnsistendum et cum hostibus erat pūgnandum, cum illī aut ex āridō aut paulum in aquam prōgressī, omnibus membrīs expedītīs, nōtissimīs locīs, audācter tēla cōicerent et equōs īnsuēfactōs incitārent. Quibus rēbus nostrī perterritī atque hūius omnīnō generis pūgnae imperītī, nōn eādem alacritāte āc studiō quō in pedestribus ūtī proeliīs cōnsuērant utēbantur.

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Caesar BG 1.7 read aloud (CF)

Caesarī cum id nūntiātum esset, eōs per prōvinciam nostram iter facere cōnārī, mātūrat ab urbe proficīscī, et quam māximīs potest itineribus in Galliam ūlteriōrem contendit, et ad Genāvam pervenit. Prōvinciae tōtī quam māximum potest mīlitum numerum imperat (erat omnīnō in Galliā ūlteriōre legiō ūna), pōntem quī erat ad Genāvam iubet rescindī. Ubi dē ēius adventū Helvētiī certiōrēs factī sunt, lēgātōs ad eum mittunt nōbilissimōs cīvitātis, cūius lēgātiōnis Nammēius et Verucloetius prīncipem locum obtinēbant, quī dīcerent sibi esse in animō sine ūllō maleficiō iter per prōvinciam facere, proptereā quod aliud iter habērent nūllum: rogāre ut ēius voluntāte id sibi facere liceat. Caesar, quod memoriā tenēbat L. Cassium cōnsulem occīsum exercitumque ēius ab Helvētiīs pulsum et sub iugum mīssum, concēdendum nōn putābat; neque hominēs inimīcō animō, datā facultāte per prōvinciam itineris faciendī, temperātūrōs ab iniūriā et maleficiō exīstimābat. Tamen, ut spatium intercēdere posset dum mīlitēs quōs imperāverat convenīrent, lēgātīs respondit diem sē ad dēlīberandum sūmptūrum: sī quid vellent, ad Īd. Aprīl. reverterentur.

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Caesar BG 1.6 read aloud (CF)

Erant omnīnō itinera duo, quibus itineribus domō exīre possent: ūnum per Sēquanōs, angustum et difficile, inter mōntem Iūram et flūmen Rhodanum, vix quā singulī carrī dūcerentur; mōns autem altissimus impendēbat, ut facile perpaucī prohibēre possent: alterum per prōvinciam nostram, multō facilius atque expedītius, proptereā quod inter fīnēs Helvētiōrum et Allobrogum, quī nūper pācātī erant, Rhodanus fluit, isque nōn nūllīs locīs vadō trānsītur. Extrēmum oppidum Allobrogum est proximumque Helvētiōrum fīnibus Genāva. Ex eō oppidō pōns ad Helvētiōs pertinet. Allobrogibus sēsē vel persuāsūrōs, quod nōndum bonō animō in populum Rōmānum vidērentur, exīstimābant vel vī coāctūrōs ut per suōs fīnēs eōs īre paterentur. Omnibus rēbus ad profectiōnem comparātīs, diem dīcunt, quā diē ad rīpam Rhodanī omnēs conveniant. Is diēs erat a. d. V. Kal. April., L. Pīsōne, A. Gabīniō cōnsulibus.

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Caesar BG 1.5 read aloud (CF)

Post ēius mortem nihilō minus Helvētiī id quod cōnstituerant facere cōnantur, ut ē fīnibus suīs exeant. Ubi iam sē ad eam rem parātōs esse arbitrātī sunt, oppida sua omnia, numerō ad duodecim, vīcōs ad quadringentōs, reliqua prīvāta aedificia incendunt; frūmentum omne, praeterquam quod sēcum portātūrī erant, combūrunt, ut domum reditiōnis spē sublātā parātiōrēs ad omnia perīcula subeunda essent; trium mēnsum molita cibāria sibi quemque domō efferre iubent. Persuādent Rauracīs et Tulingīs et Latobrīgīs fīnitimīs suīs utī eōdem ūsī cōnsiliō, oppidīs suīs vīcīsque exūstīs, ūnā cum eīs proficīscantur, Boiōsque, quī trāns Rhēnum incoluerant et in agrum Nōricum trānsierant Nōrēiamque oppūgnārant, receptōs ad sē sociōs sibi ascīscunt.

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Caesar BG 1.4 read aloud (CF)

Ea rēs est Helvētiīs per indicium ēnūntiāta. Mōribus suīs Orgetorīgem ex vinculīs causam dīcere coēgērunt. Damnātum poenam sequī oportēbat ut īgnī cremārētur. Diē cōnstitūtā causae dictiōnis Orgetorīx ad iūdicium omnem suam familiam ad hominum mīlia decem undique coēgit, et omnēs clientēs obaerātōsque suōs, quōrum māgnum numerum habēbat, eōdem condūxit: per eōs nē causam dīceret sē ēripuit. Cum cīvitās ob eam rem incitāta armīs iūs suum exsequī cōnārētur, multitūdinemque hominum ex agrīs magistrātūs cōgerent, Orgetorīx mortuus est; neque abest suspīciō, ut Helvētiī arbitrantur, quīn ipse sibi mortem cōnscīverit.

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Caesar BG 1.3 read aloud (CF)

Hīs rēbus adductī et auctōritāte Orgetorīgis permōtī, cōnstituērunt ea quae ad proficīscendum pertinērent comparāre, iūmentōrum et carrōrum quam māximum numerum coëmere, sēmentēs quam māximās facere ut in itinere cōpia frūmentī suppeteret, cum proximīs cīvitātibus pācem et amīcitiam cōnfīrmāre. Ad eās rēs cōnficiendās biennium sibi satis esse dūxērunt: in tertium annum profectiōnem lēge cōnfīrmant. Ad eās rēs cōnficiendās Orgetorīx dēligitur. Is sibi lēgātiōnem ad cīvitātēs suscēpit. In eō itinere persuādet Casticō, Catamantāloedis fīliō Sēquanō, cūius pater rēgnum in Sēquanīs multōs annōs obtinuerat et ā senātū populī Rōmānī amīcus appellātus erat, ut rēgnum in cīvitāte suā occupāret, quod pater ante habuerat; itemque Dumnorīgī Aeduō frātrī Dīviciācī, quī eō tempore prīncipātum in cīvitāte obtinēbat āc māximē plēbī acceptus erat, ut idem cōnārētur persuādet, eīque fīliam suam in mātrimōnium dat. Perfacile factū esse illīs probat cōnāta perficere, proptereā quod ipse suae cīvitātis imperium obtentūrus esset: nōn esse dubium quīn tōtīus Galliae plūrimum Helvētiī possent; sē suīs cōpiīs suōque exercitū illīs rēgna conciliātūrum cōnfīrmat. Hāc ōrātiōne adductī inter sē fidem et iūs iūrandum dant, et rēgnō occupātō per trēs potentissimōs āc fīrmissimōs populōs tōtīus Galliae sēsē potīrī posse spērant.

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Caesar BG 1.1 read aloud (CF)

Gallia est omnis dīvīsa in partēs trēs, quārum ūnam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquītānī, tertiam quī ipsōrum linguā Celtae, nostrā Gallī appellantur. Hī omnēs linguā, īnstitūtīs, lēgibus inter sē differunt. Gallōs ab Aquītānīs Garumna flūmen, ā Belgīs Mātrona et Sēquana dīvidit. Hōrum omnium fortissimī sunt Belgae, proptereā quod ā cultū atque hūmānitāte prōvinciae longissimē absunt, minimēque ad eōs mercātōrēs saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effēminandōs animōs pertinent important, proximīque sunt Germānīs, quī trāns Rhēnum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Quā dē causā Helvētiī quoque reliquōs Gallōs virtūte praecēdunt, quod ferē cotīdiānīs proeliīs cum Germānīs contendunt, cum aut suīs fīnibus eōs prohibent aut ipsī in eōrum fīnibus bellum gerunt. Eōrum ūna pars, quam Gallōs obtinēre dictum est, initium capit ā flūmine Rhodanō; continētur Garumnā flūmine, Ōceanō, fīnibus Belgārum; attingit etiam ab Sēquanīs et Helvētiīs flūmen Rhēnum; vergit ad septentriōnēs. Belgae ab extrēmīs Galliae fīnibus oriuntur; pertinent ad īnferiōrem partem flūminis Rhēnī; spectant in septentriōnem et orientem sōlem. Aquītānia ā Garumnā flūmine ad Pȳrēnaeōs mōntēs et eam partem Ōceanī quae est ad Hispāniam pertinet; spectat inter occāsum sōlis et septentriōnēs.

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Caesar BG 1.2 read aloud (CF)

Apud Helvētiōs longē nōbilissimus fuit et dītissimus Orgetorīx. Is, M. Messālā et M. Pupio Pīsōne cōnsulibus, rēgnī cupiditāte inductus coniūrātiōnem nōbilitātis fēcit, et cīvitātī persuāsit ut dē fīnibus suīs cum omnibus cōpiīs exīrent: perfacile esse, cum virtūte omnibus praestārent, tōtīus Galliae imperiō potīrī. Id hōc facilius iīs persuāsit, quod undique locī nātūrā Helvētiī continentur: ūnā ex parte flūmine Rhēnō lātissimō atque altissimō, quī agrum Helvētium ā Germānīs dīvidit; alterā ex parte mōnte Iūrā altissimō, quī est inter Sēquanōs et Helvētiōs; tertiā lacū Lemannō et flūmine Rhodanō, quī prōvinciam nostram ab Helvētiīs dīvidit. Hīs rēbus fīēbat ut et minus lātē vagārentur et minus facile fīnitimīs bellum īnferre possent: quā ex parte hominēs bellandī cupidī māgnō dolōre adficiēbantur. Prō multitūdine autem hominum et prō glōriā bellī atque fortitūdinis angustōs sē fīnēs habēre arbitrābantur, quī in longitūdinem mīlia passuum CCXL, in lātitūdinem CLXXX patēbant.

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Caesar's Strategy and Genius

Caesar’s Strategy and Genius (14:57). Loren J. Samons, Professor of Classical Studies, Boston University. Dr. Samons  is the author of many books and articles on Greek and Roman history, and the recipient of several teaching awards, including the Distinguished Teaching Professorship from The National Endowment for the Humanities (2011-). This podcast draws on material from his popular course at Boston University, “Warfare in Antiquity.” Recorded August, 2012.

Loren J. Samons

Outline

1.Why Caesar went to Gaul. Caesar’s first consulship (59 BC) and the First Triumvirate; imperium and immunity from prosecution; the ten-year window; Caesar’s proconsular provinces; the pretext of protecting Gallia Transalpina. 

2.Caesar’s strategy. Projecting power beyond the borders of provinces; pacification vs. conquest and incorporation; wintering in Gaul; invasions of Germany and Britain; the importance of money; the Commentaries as publicity for Caesar.

3.Caesar’s tactics. The use of location and topography to win without battle; the relative speed of Caesar’s army; the use of reserve power; campaigns of reprisal.

4.Caesar’s mastery of the psychology of his troops. Inspiring troops by fighting with them; motivating them in a difficult situation.

 

Caesar's Army

Caesar’s Army (12:34). Loren J. Samons, Professor of Classical Studies, Boston University. Dr. Samons  is the author of many books and articles on Greek and Roman history, and the recipient of several teaching awards, including the Distinguished Teaching Professorship from The National Endowment for the Humanities (2011-). This podcast draws on material from his popular course at Boston University, “Warfare in Antiquity.” Recorded August, 2012. 

Loren J. Samons

Outline:

1.Structure: citizens vs. professionals; the legion; auxiliaries; the cohort; the century; battle lines

2.Weaponry: gladius; scutum; pilum

3.Tactics: the use of the pilum; the use of the gladius; the importance of reserve power; the triplex acies

4.Command: commanders with imperium; military tribunes; centurions; chief centurions

5.Allied troops: Gallic cavalry; light armed troops

 

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