Vergil, Aeneid XI 836-867

At Triuiae custos iamdudum in montibus Opis

alta sedet summis spectatque interrita pugnas.

utque procul medio iuuenum in clamore furentum

prospexit tristi mulcatam morte Camillam,

ingemuitque deditque has imo pectore uoces:840

'heu nimium, uirgo, nimium crudele luisti

supplicium Teucros conata lacessere bello!

nec tibi desertae in dumis coluisse Dianam

profuit aut nostras umero gessisse pharetras.

non tamen indecorem tua te regina reliquit845

extrema iam in morte, neque hoc sine nomine letum

per gentis erit aut famam patieris inultae.

nam quicumque tuum uiolauit uulnere corpus

morte luet merita.' fuit ingens monte sub alto

regis Dercenni terreno ex aggere bustum850

antiqui Laurentis opacaque ilice tectum;

hic dea se primum rapido pulcherrima nisu

sistit et Arruntem tumulo speculatur ab alto.

ut uidit fulgentem armis ac uana tumentem,

'cur' inquit 'diuersus abis? huc derige gressum,855

huc periture ueni, capias ut digna Camillae

praemia. tune etiam telis moriere Dianae?'

dixit, et aurata uolucrem Threissa sagittam

deprompsit pharetra cornuque infensa tetendit

et duxit longe, donec curuata coirent860

inter se capita et manibus iam tangeret aequis,

laeua aciem ferri, dextra neruoque papillam.

extemplo teli stridorem aurasque sonantis

audiit una Arruns haesitque in corpore ferrum.

illum exspirantem socii atque extrema gementem865

obliti ignoto camporum in puluere linquunt;

Opis ad aetherium pennis aufertur Olympum.

CORE VOCABULARY

Trivia, ae, f.: an epithet of Hecate or Diana, whose images were placed at the forks of roads, 6.13, et al. (trivium)

iam: (adv.), at that time, at this time; even then, even now; already, 1.437, et al.; with tum, even, 1.18; w. imperat., at length, at once, 3.41, et al.; soon, presently, immediately, 4.566; then, at length, 1.272; marking a transition, now, 2.567, et al.; iam iam, emphatic, now indeed, 4.371; now, now, 2.530; iam dūdum, iam prīdem, already for some time, long, 1.580, et al.; iam inde, iam ab illō tempore, even from then or that time, 1.623; iam tum, even then; iam — iam, at one time, at another time, now — now; nōn iam, no longer, 4.431; iamdūdum, at once.

Ōpis, is, f.: one of Diana's nymphs, 11.532.

interritus, a, um: (adj.), unaffrighted; dauntless, 5.427; of inanimate things, undisturbed; without peril, secure, 5.863.

furō, uī, 3, n.: to be mad; freq., to rave, be frantic, rage, 1.491; to be furious, burn, storm (for war), 7.625; to be burning or mad with love, 1.659; to be frenzied, in a frenzy, 6.100; inspired, 2.345; distracted with grief, 3.313; plunge madly, 9.552; boil, 7.464; with cognate acc., give vent to one's fury, 12.680.

prōspiciō, spexī, spectus, 3, n. and a.: to look forth, forward; to see afar, in the distance, descry, see, 3.648; to look forth or out upon, w. dat., 1.127. (prō and speciō, look)

mulcō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to punish, 11.839.

Camilla, ae, f.: a Volscian heroine, ally of Turnus, 7.803, et al.

ingemō, uī, itus, 3, n. and a.: to sigh or groan, 1.93; (w. acc.), groan for; lament, bewail.

heu: (interj.), alas! ah! oh! 2.289, et al.

crūdēlis, e: adj. (crūdus), unfeeling, ruthless, cruel, inhuman, 2.124; relentless, 1.547; unnatural, 6.24; mortal, deadly, 2.561; bloody, 1.355; bitter, 1.361.

luō, uī, 3, a.: to set free by atonement; pay for, atone for, expiate, 1.136, et al.; suffer, 11.849. (rel. to λύω, loosen)

Teucrī, ōrum, m.: the Trojans, descendants of Teucer, 1.38, et al.; adj., Teucrian, Trojan, 9.779, et al. (Teucer)

lacessō, cessīvī, cessītus, 3, intens. a.: to provoke, rouse, irritate, incite, 5.429; call forth, summon, rouse, 10.10; challenge, attack, assail, 11.585; strike, smite, 7.527; slap with the hand, caress, cheer, 12.85.

nec or neque: (adv. and conj.), and not; neither, nor, 1.643, et al.; in prohibition, 3.394, et al.; neque (nec) — neque (nec), neither — nor, 5.21, et al.; nec — et, or -que, may be rendered neither — nor, 12.801; 2.534; nec nōn, and also, nor less, 6.183; nec nōn et, and also, 1.707.

dūmus, ī, m.: a bramble, 4.526; brake, thicket.

Diāna, ae, f.: a goddess of the Italians, and regarded by them as one with the Greek Artemis, daughter of Latona, and sister of Apollo; called Luna, as goddess of the moon; Hecate, as an infernal deity, invoked in magic rites, 4.511; and Diana, as goddess of the chase, 1.499. (rel. to Iānus = Diānus)

prōsum, prōfuī, prōdesse, irreg. n.: to be advantageous, useful, profitable; to benefit, profit, avail, 5.684.

umerus, ī, m.: the upper bone of the arm; the shoulder, 1.501, and freq.

pharetra, ae, f.: a quiver, 1.323, et al.

indecor, oris, and indecoris, e: (adj.), disgraceful, bringing disgrace, 7.231; disgraced, infamous, 11.423; unhonored, 11.845.

rēgīna, ae, f.: a queen, 1.9; princess, 1.273. (rēx)

lētum, ī, n.: death, destruction, 2.134, et al. (cf. dēleō)

inultus, a, um: (adj.), unavenged, 2.670.

violō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to exercise force upon; hurt, wound, 11.277; break, 7.114; devastate, 11.255; desecrate, profane, 2.189; stain, 12.67. (vīs)

meritus, a, um: having deserved, deserving, 3.667; (pass.), deserved, merited, 4.611; due, 5.652. (mereō)

Dercennus, ī, m.: an ancient king of Laurentum, 11.850.

terrēnus, a, um: adj. (terra), made of earth; earthen, of earth, 11.850; earthly, earth-born, 6.732.

agger, eris, m.: materials gathered to form an elevation; a heap of earth or stones, dike, embankment, bank, 1.112; 2.496; heap of earth, 9.567; top, summit, ridge, raised surface, 5.44, 273; a rampart, 9.769, et al.; a height or rising ground, 12.446; aggerēs, mountains, mountain ramparts, 6.830. (aggerō)

būstum, ī, n.: the mound where the dead have been burned; funeral pile, 11.201; tomb, 12.863. (cf. combūrō)

Laurēns, entis: adj. (Laurentum), of Laurentum, the ancient capital of Latium; Laurentine, Laurentian, 5.797, et al., subst., Laurentēs, um, pl. m., the Laurentians, 7.63, et al.

opācus, a, um: (adj.), shady, 6.283; obscure, dark, 3.619; subst., opāca, ōrum, n., partitive; opāca viārum, dark pathways, roads, 6.633.

īlex, icis, f.: the holm-oak, scarlet oak, ilex, 6.180.

rapidus, a, um: adj. (rapiō), that tears away; violent, fierce; swiftly moving, rapid, 1.42; speedy, quick, prompt, 5.513.

nīsus, ūs, m.: a leaning, pressing against; bracing; position of resistance, 5.437; effort, exertion, 3.37; descent, 11.852. (nītor)

sistō, stitī, status, 3, a. and n.: to cause to stand, put, set, place, w. abl. of place, 2.245, et al.; place before one, bring, 4.634; fix, plant, 10.323; stop, 12.355; arrest, stay, 6.465; support, sustain, maintain, 6.858; set, place, 6.676; n., stand still, to stop, remain, abide, 3.7; stand in fight, 11.873.

Arrūns, untis, m.: Arruns or Aruns, an Etruscan follower of Tarchon, 11.759.

tumulus, ī, m.: a rising ground; a low hill, 9.195; a mound, 2.713; sepulchral mound, sepulcher, tomb, 3.304; 11.103. (tumeō)

speculor, ātus sum, 1, dep. a. and n.: to look out, mark, survey, behold, espy, 7.477; watch, consider, observe, 1.516. (specula)

fulgēns, entis: gleaming, flashing, 2.749; glowing, bright, 9.614. (fulgeō)

atque, or ac: (conj.), and in addition, or and besides; and, as well, and indeed, and, 1.575; freq.; even, 2.626; in comparisons, as, 4.90; than, 3.561.

tumeō, uī, 2, n.: to swell, 2.381; to be puffed up, boastful, 11.854; p., tumēns, entis, swollen, 2.381.

abeō, īvī, or iī, itus, īre, irreg. n.: to go away, depart, 2.675; go off, go aside, turn off, 5.162; pass into, sink into, 9.700; go forward, take the lead, 5.318; retreat, 2.382; change or be transformed.

dērigō, rēxī, rēctus, 3, a.: to lay straight, bring into a definite line; to aim, direct, 1.401, et al. (dē and regō)

gressus, ūs, m.: a stepping; step, walk, course, way, 1.401; of a ship, 5.162; air, mien, gait, 5.649; ferre gressum, to walk, 6.677; efferre gressum, to go forth or out, 2.753; comprimere gressum, to stop, stay one’s steps, 6.389. (gradior)

pereō, iī, itus, īre, irreg. n.: to go out of sight; to be lost, undone, 4.497; perish, 2.660; die, 2.408.

veniō, vēnī, ventus: to come, freq.; come forth; approach, 6.755; rise, appear, 1.353; dawn, 10.241; to present one's self or itself, 5.344; descend, spring from, 5.373; impers., ventum est, we, they came or have come, 4.151.

aurātus, a, um: adj. (aurum), gilded, golden, of gold, 12.163; embroidered with gold, 5.250.

Thrēissus, a, um: (adj.), Thracian, 1.316, et al.; subst., Thrēissa, a huntress, 11.858.

sagitta, ae, f.: an arrow, 1.187, et al.

dēprōmō, prōmpsī, prōmptus, 3, a.: to draw forth, 5.501.

īnfēnsus, a, um: hostile, inimical, 5.587; fatal, destructive, 5.641; angry, furious, 2.72.

curvō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to bend, curve, 3.533; swell, 3.564; wind, 7.381. (curvus)

coeō, coīvī or coiī, coitus, coīre, irreg. n. and a.: to go or come together, assemble, 7.582; come together in conflict, join battle; of the blood, stand still, congeal, curdle, 3.30; come to terms, form a compact, 7.317; coīre in ūnum, to come to one place, unite, concentrate, combine, 9.801, et al.

manus, ūs, f.: the hand, 1.487; freq.; (meton.), action, movement of the hand; work, art, handiwork, 3.486; prowess, heroic deed, action, 2.434; force, violence, 2.645; a collection of persons; a band, crew, troop; an army, 2.29; forces, 5.623; multitude, 6.660; pl., manūs, workmen, 11.329; dare manūs, to yield, 11.558; extrēma manus, the finishing hand or touch, 7.572.

laeva, ae, f. (sc. manus): the left hand, 1.611; ab laevā, on the left side, 8.460.

nervus, ī, m.: a nerve; sinew, tendon, 10.341; bow-string, 5.502; string of the lyre, 9.776.

papilla, ae, f.: a nipple; the breast, 11.803.

extemplō: (adv.), immediately, forthwith, at once, directly, 6.210. (ex and tempus)

strīdor, ōris, m.: a harsh, grating, or whizzing sound; a creaking, whistling, 1.87; din, clank, rattling, 6.558; humming, 7.65. (strīdō)

ūnā: (adv.), in one place or at one time, together with, at once, at the same time, 3.634, et al.; with -que following, 11.864.

haereō, haesī, haesus, 2, n.: to stick; foll. by dat., or by abl. w. or without a prep.; hang, cling, adhere, cling to, 1.476, et al.; stop, stand fixed, 6.559; halt, 11.699; adhere to as companion, 10.780; stick to in the chase, 12.754; persist, 2.654; dwell, 4.4; pause, hesitate, 3.597; be fixed or decreed, 4.614.

exspīrō, āvī, ātus, 1, a. and n.: to breathe out, 1.44; to expire, die, 10.731.

gemō, uī, itus, 3, n. and a.: to groan, 7.501; sigh, 1.465; bemoan, bewail, lament, 1.221; of inanimate things, creak, 6.413.

oblīvīscor, oblītus sum, 3, dep. n. and a.: to forget, w. acc. or gen. of object, 2.148; to be heedless, unmindful, forgetful of, 5.174; p., oblītus, a, um, having forgotten; forgetful, 4.528.

ignōtus, a, um: (adj.), unknown, 1.359; strange, 5.795; not well known, but little known, 11.527.

pulvis, eris, m., rarely f.: dust, 2.273; soil, ground, earth; dusty plain, 7.163.

linquō, līquī, 3, a.: to leave, 1.517, and freq.; desert, abandon, flee from, 3.213; pass by, 3.705; depart from, leave, 3.124; of death, yield up, 3.140; give up or over, desist from, 3.160.

aetherius, a, um: adj. (aethēr), pertaining to the upper air; ethereal, heavenly, 1.394, et al.; airy, 8.608.

penna (pinna), ae, f.: a feather, 12.750; wing, pinion, 3.258; in the form pinna, a pinnacle, battlement, palisade, 7.159.

Olympus, ī, m.: Olympus, the name of several mountains in Greece and Asia Minor, the most famous of which was Mount Olympus in the northeastern part of Thessaly; the home of the superior gods; heaven, Olympus, 1.374; referring to the gods, 8.533.

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Suggested Citation

Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/vergil-aeneid/vergil-aeneid-xi-836-867