Vergil, Aeneid I 102-123

Tālia iactantī strīdēns Aquilōne procella

vēlum adversa ferit, flūctūsque ad sīdera tollit.

franguntur rēmī, tum prōra āvertit et undīs

dat latus, īnsequitur cumulō praeruptus aquae mōns.105

Hī summō in flūctū pendent; hīs unda dehīscēns

terram inter flūctūs aperit, furit aestus harēnīs.

Trēs Notus abreptās in saxa latentia torquet

(saxa vocant Italī mediīs quae in flūctibus Ārās,

dorsum immāne marī summō), trēs Eurus ab altō110

in brevia et syrtēs urget, miserābile vīsū,

inlīditque vadīs atque aggere cingit harēnae.

Ūnam, quae Lyciōs fīdumque vehēbat Orontēn,

ipsius ante oculōs ingēns ā vertice pontus

in puppim ferit: excutitur prōnusque magister115

volvitur in caput, ast illam ter flūctus ibīdem

torquet agēns circum et rapidus vorat aequore vertex.

appārent rārī nantēs in gurgite vāstō,

arma virum tabulaeque et Trōïa gaza per undās.

Iam validam Īlioneī nāvem, iam fortis Achātae,120

et quā vectus Abās, et quā grandaevus Alētēs,

vīcit hiems; laxīs laterum compāgibus omnēs

accipiunt inimīcum imbrem rīmīsque fatīscunt.

Manuscripts: M 102-116, 117-123 | R 102-108, 109-123

The fleet is scattered; three ships are wrecked, one swamped (Storr). 

102: iactanti: dative of reference (F-B) (AG 378.2). Dative of disadvantage (Walpole) (AG 376). An ethical dative (P-H) (AG 380). Aquilone: ablative of place from which (F-B). “From the north” (Frieze). Ablative of cause with stridens (Carter). “Howling with the north wind” (Walpole).

103: velum adversa ferit: “strikes the sail full in front”; adversa (lit. “facing”) agrees with procella, though adverbial in sense (F-B). ferit: from ferio (Page).

104: avertit: intransitive (F-B). avertere = avertere se (Carter). undis: dat. of indirect object (Robertson).

105: cumulo: “in a heap, ablative of manner (F-B) (AG 412). “In a mass”; join with insequitur as an ablative of manner (Frieze).

106: hi...his: “ others”; the crews of different ships are referred to (F-B).

107: harenis: ablative of means (F-B) (AG 409).

108: tres: i.e., naves (F-B). Notus: “wind” (Robertson). latentia: “hidden,” “sunken,” i.e., just reaching the surface of the water (110), hence the sailor might fail to see them (Conway).

109: quae: understand sunt (Bennett). Construe: Saxa (quae) Itali vocant Aras, quae (sunt) in mediis fluctibus (Walpole). Aras: “Altars,” a name given to a rocky reef off the African coast (F-B).

110: dorsum: in apposition with Aras. The word properly means an animal’s back (F-B). ab alto: “from the deep sea” (Walpole).

111: brevia: here a noun (Knapp). in brevia et syrtes: “onto the shallows and sand banks.” The famous Syrtes (Gulfs of Cabes and Sidra), possibly referred to here, are considerably to the east of Carthage, but poets are often vague in their geographical references (F-B) (map). miserabile visu: “wretched to behold” (Bennett). miserabile is an accusative, in apposition with the sentence (F-B) (AG 397f). visu: the supine in u (Carter) (AG 510).

112: vadis: dative after invidit (Carter).

113: unam: sc. navem (F-B).

114: ipsius: refers to Aeneas (Frieze). a vertice: “from above” (Robertson). The prepositional phrase is equivalent to an adjective and so qualifies a substantive. This use is comparatively rare, and is largely due to Greek influence (F-B).

115: excutitur: sc. e navi (F-B). magister: “helmsman, pilot” (Comstock).

116: illam: the ship, in contrast with the persons on board (Frieze).

117: agens circum: = circumagens, tmesis and transposition. It is added to show how the action is performed (Walpole). circum: belongs to both verbs (F-B).

118: apparent: “come suddenly into sight” (Conway). rari: predicative, contrasted with vasto (Conway). Referring to the voyagers seen struggling in the sea, less numerous than the arms, planks, and valuables floating all about per undas (Frieze).

119: arma: wicker shields and leather helmets (Page). virum: = virorum (Carter) (AG 49d). tabulae: “planks” (Conway). gaza: “treasures” (Comstock).

120: Ilionei: the ei is one syllable by synizesis (F-B) (AG 603c note). Achatae: fidus Achates, Aeneas’ right-hand man. He is saved and comes in frequently in the subsequent narrative. The name has become proverbial for a faithful comrade (Carter).

121: qua: the antecedent of qua is navem to be supplied as the object of vicit (Carter). vectus: sc. est (F-B).

122: laxis: = laxatis, the construction being an ablative absolute (F-B). compagibus: abl. of means or abl. absol. (C-R).

123: accipiunt: the metaphor is taken from a conquered city which surrenders and receives its foes within its walls (F-B). imbrem: here of the sea, but usually of rain (F-B). = “water” by metonomy (Walpole). rimis: “with chinks,” ablative of attendant circumstances (F-B). abl. of manner (Frieze).


iactō, āvī, ātus, 1, freq. a.: to throw often or much; toss to and fro; toss, freq.; hurl, cast, 2.459; thrust out, 5.376; aim, 5.433; (fig.), throw out words, utter, say, 1.102; of the mind, revolve, meditate, 1.227; sē iactāre, boast, exalt one's self, rejoice, glory, 1.140; prae sē iactāre, to make pretense of, 9.134; p., iactāns, antis, arrogant, assuming, ambitious, 6.815. (iaciō)

strīdeō, 2, n., and strīdō, strīdī, 3: to produce a grating or shrill sound; to creak, 1.449; gurgle, 4.689; rustle, 1.397; whiz, roar, 1.102; hiss, 8.420; twang, 5.502.

Aquilō, ōnis, m.: the north wind; wind in general, 1.391; wintry, tempestuous wind, 3.285; the north, 1.102.

procella, ae, f.: a gale, storm, squall, tempest, 1.102.

vēlum, ī, n.: a cloth; sail, 1.103, et al.; a curtain, canvas, covering, 1.469.

feriō, 4, a.: to smite or strike, 1.103; cut, 4.580; pierce, 12.304; slay, 10.315; strike or slay the covenant victim; hence, of a treaty, to make, 10.154.

rēmus, ī, m.: originally steering-oar; an oar, 1.104.

prōra, ae, f.: the extreme forward part of a ship; the prow, 1.104.

āvertō, vertī, versus, 3, a.: to turn (anything) away from, followed by an abl. with or without a prep., 1.38, et al.; turn or drive away, 1.472, et al.; transfer, with acc. of place, 4.106; drive away, end, 4.547; neut. by omission of se, to turn away, 1.402; (pass.), avertī, as middle or dep., with acc., to be averse to; to shun, loathe.

īnsequor, secūtus sum, 3, dep. a.: to follow up, pursue, follow, 5.321; press on, follow up; succeed, 1.87; persecute, pursue, 1.241; w. inf., proceed, 3.32.

cumulus, ī, m.: a heap; flood, mass, 1.105.

praerumpō, rūpī, ruptus, 3, a.: to burst or break off in front; p., praeruptus, a, um, broken or torn off; precipitous, abrupt, steep, 1.105.

pendeō, pependī, 2, n.: to hang, foll. by abl. alone or w. prep., 2.546, et al.; 5.511; be suspended, 1.106; cling, 9.562; bend, stoop forward, 5.147; (meton.), linger, delay, 6.151; listen, hang upon, 4.79.

dehīscō, hīvī, 3, n.: to gape, yawn, 1.106; stand open, open, 6.52.

furō, uī, 3, n.: to be mad; freq., to rave, be frantic, rage, 1.491; to be furious, burn, storm (for war), 7.625; to be burning or mad with love, 1.659; to be frenzied, in a frenzy, 6.100; inspired, 2.345; distracted with grief, 3.313; plunge madly, 9.552; boil, 7.464; with cognate acc., give vent to one's fury, 12.680.

aestus, ūs, m.: glowing heat; summer; a boiling; a billowy motion; waves of flame, flames, 2.706; wave, surge, 1.107; tide, sea, flood, 3.419; tide (of feeling), agitation, 4.532.

harēna, ae, f.: sand, 1.112; sandy shore, strand, 1.540; sandy ground, arena; space for races; an arena, 5.336.

Notus, ī, m.: identical in meaning with auster; the south-wind, 1.85; wind, 6.355; storm, 1.575.

abripiō, ripuī, reptus, 3, a.: to take away violently; snatch, carry away, 1.108; 4.600. (ab and rapiō)

torqueō, torsī, tortus, 2, a.: to wind, turn, twist, 4.575; roll along, 6.551; whirl, hurl, 3.208; shoot, 5.497; cast, dash, 1.108; direct, 4.220; turn away, 6.547; turn, cause to revolve, 4.269; control, 12.180; p., tortus, a, um, whirled, whirling, impetuous, 7.567.

Italī, ōrum, m.: the Italians, 1.109. (Ītalia)

āra, ae, f.: an altar, 2.514, et al.; funeral pile, 6.177; pl., Ārae, ārum, the Altars, a reef in the Mediterranean Sea between Sicily and Africa, 1.109.

dorsum, ī, n.: the back, 11.577; a ridge, reef of rocks, 1.110; a bank, 10.303.

immānis, e: (adj.), vast, huge, immense, 1.110; wild, savage, barbarous, 1.616; cruel, ruthless, 1.347; unnatural, monstrous, hideous, 6.624; (adv.), immāne, wildly, fiercely, 12.535.

Eurus, ī, m.: the southeast wind, 1.85, et al.; wind, 1.383, et al.

altum, ī, n.: the deep; the lofty; the deep sea, the main, the deep, 1.3; the sky, heaven, air, 1.297; from far, far-fetched, remote, 8.395. (altus)

brevis, e: (adj.), short, of space, 3.507; shallow, 5.221; of time, brief, 10.467; subst. pl., brevia, ium, n., shoals, 1.111.

syrtis, is, f.: a sand-bank or shoal in the sea; esp., Syrtis Maior and Syrtis Minor, on the northern coast of Africa, 4.41; a sand-bank, shoal, 1.111.

urgeō, ursī, 2, a. and n.: to drive, impel, press forward, 1.111; ply, hasten, 9.489; press, oppress, crush, bear down, 3.579; press around, inclose, surround, hem in, 11.524; weigh upon, oppress, close, 10.745; overpower, 2.653; attack, 10.375; punish, torture, 6.561.

miserābilis, e: adj. (miseror), that deserves to be pitied; pitiable, miserable, deplorable, wretched, 1.111; (adv.), miserābile, wretchedly, pitiably, 12.338.

inlīdo, līsī, līsus, 3, a.: to dash upon, thrust, drive upon, 1.112; dash into, 5.480. (1. in and laedō)

vadum, ī, n.: a ford; a shallow, shoal, 1.112; sand-bank, 10.303; shallow water, 11.628; bottom, depth, 1.126; water, tide, stream, 6.320; water of the sea, 5.158; wave, sea, 7.198.

agger, eris, m.: materials gathered to form an elevation; a heap of earth or stones, dike, embankment, bank, 1.112; 2.496; heap of earth, 9.567; top, summit, ridge, raised surface, 5.44, 273; a rampart, 9.769, et al.; a height or rising ground, 12.446; aggerēs, mountains, mountain ramparts, 6.830. (aggerō)

Lyciī, ōrum, m.: the Lycians, 1.113.

fīdus, a, um: adj. (fīdō), trustworthy, faithful, trusty, 1.188; safe, secure, hospitable, 5.24; w. gen., tuī fīdissima, most faithful to thee, 12.659.

Orontēs, is, ī, or ae: a leader of the Lycians and companion of Aeneas, 6.334.

vertex, icis, m.: a whirl; whirlpool, 7.567; vortex, 1.117; whirling column of flame, 12.673; the top, crown of the head, the head, 1.403; summit, top, 1.163; mountain summit, height, 3.679; ā vertice, from on high, from above, 1.114. (vertō)

puppis, is, f.: the hinder part of a ship; the stern, 5.12; (by synecdoche), a vessel, boat, ship, 1.69; (meton.), crew, 8.497.

excutiō, cussī, cussus, 3, a.: to shake out or off, 2.224; throw or cast down, 1.115; cast out, 10.590; drive away, 3.200; expel, 7.299; shake out, uncoil, 3.267; uncoil and arrange (set the sails), 3.683; deprive of, 6.353; throw aside, break, 12.158; hurry forth, call forth, 9.68. (ex and quatiō)

prōnus, a, um: (adj.), inclined, stooping or bending forward, 3.668; leaning 8.236; descending, falling, 11.485; going down, 9.713; favorable, safe, 5.212.

volvō, volvī, volūtus, 3, a.: to roll, 1.86; roll along or down, 1.101; roll or cast up, 3.206; toss, hurl, 12.906; roll over, roll in the dust, 12.329; cast, hurl down, 1.116; 9.512; roll, wheel, 1.163; of books, open, unroll, 1.262; of the Fates, fix the circle of events, decree, ordain, dispose, 1.22; 3.376; of the mind, revolve, meditate, reflect upon, 1.305; pass, continue, live through, experience, endure, suffer, 1.9; rotam volvere, to complete a cycle, period; (pass.), volvī, roll over, roll, 10.590; turn or wind about, 7.350; to be shed, to flow, 4.449; roll on, revolve, 1.269.

ter: (num. adv.), thrice, three times, 1.94, et al. (trēs)

ibīdem: (adv.), in the same place, 1.116.

circum: (adv.), about, around; (prep. with acc.), around, about.

rapidus, a, um: adj. (rapiō), that tears away; violent, fierce; swiftly moving, rapid, 1.42; speedy, quick, prompt, 5.513.

vorō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to swallow up, 1.117.

nō, nāvī, nātus, 1, n.: to swim, 1.118.

gurges, itis, m.: a whirlpool, gulf, 3.421; flood, 2.497; wave, billow, 3.564; rolling, raging sea, abyss, 1.118; sea, ocean, 7.704.

vāstus, a, um: (adj.), empty, void, wild, waste, 9.323; vast, unbounded, 1.118; huge, enormous, immense, 3.647; deep-, vast-, sounding, 1.245.

tabula, ae, f.: a board, plank, 1.119.

Trōius, a, um: (adj.), of Troy, Trojan, 1.119.

gāza, ae, f.: strictly, the Persian royal treasure; in gen., riches, wealth, treasure, 1.119. (a Persian word, Greek form, γάζα)

Īlioneus (quadrisyll.), eī, m. (acc. ēa instead of ea, 1.611): commander of one of the ships of Aeneas, 1.120, et al.

Achātēs, ae, m.: Achates, a companion of Aeneas, 1.174, et al.

Abās, antis, m.: 1. The twelfth king of Argos, grandson of Danaus, 3.286. 2. A Trojan, follower of Aeneas, 1.121. 3. An Etruscan, 10.427.

grandaevus, a, um: adj. (grandis and aevum), very aged; old, aged, 1.121.

Alētēs, is, m.: a companion of Aeneas, 1.121.

laxus, a, um: (adj.), loose; disjointed, unfastened, gaping, open, 1.122; slack, loosened, free, 1.63; unbent, 11.874.

compāgēs, is, f.: a joining; fastening, joint, 1.122. (com- and pangō)

imber, imbris, m.: a rain-storm; shower, 1.743, et al.; rain-cloud, 3.194; of sea-water, flood, 1.123; hail, 8.429.

rīma, ae, f.: a cleft; crack, chink, fissure, 1.123.

fatīscō, 3, inc. n.: to come apart; to open, 1.123; gape open, 9.809.

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Suggested Citation

Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5.