Aeneid

Vocabulary Mastery Curves for Aeneid and Gallic War 2

How many lemmata (dictionary headwords) does one have to master to read Latin comfortably? In the case of Vergil's Aeneid and Caesar's Gallic War the answer to this question can be represented as a graph, thanks to data collected by LASLA in a human inspetion and parsing of these texts. The graph here represents the percentage of all lemmata in the works which is accounted for by the top 1000 most frequent lemmata in those texts (excluding proper names). Knowing the 20 most frequent lemmata, along with the rules of Latin morphology, the reader will recognize 20% of word forms in the Aeneid and 28% of those in the Gallic War. Knowing 100 frequent lemmata, the reader will recognize 38% of word forms in the Aeneid and 52% of those in the Gallic War. The top 1,000 lemmata account for 81% and 91% of word forms, respectively).The LASLA data were analyzed by Seth Levin and Connor Ford. The visualization was produced by Seth Levin and Connor Ford using Excel. 

Type
Image
License
Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
Date
2016

Vocabulary Mastery Curves for Aeneid and Gallic War 1

How many lemmata (dictionary headwords) does one have to master to read Latin comfortably? In the case of Vergil's Aeneid and Caesar's Gallic War the answer to this question can be represented as a graph, thanks to data collected by LASLA in a human inspetion and parsing of these texts. The graph here represents the percentage of all lemmata in the works which is accounted for by the top 100 most frequent lemmata in those texts (excluding proper names). Knowing the 20 most frequent lemmata, along with the rules of Latin morphology, the reader will recognize 20% of word forms in the Aeneid and 28% of those in the Gallic War. Knowing 100 frequent lemmata, the reader will recognize 38% of word forms in the Aeneid and 52% of those in the Gallic War. Another graph represents the same figures for the top 1,000 lemmata (81% and 91% respectively).The LASLA data were analyzed by Seth Levin and Connor Ford. The visualization was produced by Seth Levin and Connor Ford using Excel. 

Type
Image
License
Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
Date
2016

80 most frequent non-core lemmata in the Aeneid

The most frequent non-core lemmata (dictionary headwords) in Vergil's Aeneid, including proper names. The data derives from human inspection and parsing of the Aeneid carried out by LASLA. The data were analyzed and collated with the DCC Core Latin Vocabulary by Lara Frymark, Seth Levin, and Connor Ford. The visualization was produced by Seth Levin using Tableau. See full data here.

Type
Image
License
Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
Agent
Date
2016

80 most frequent lemmata in the Aeneid

The most frequent lemmata (dictionary headwords) in Vergil's Aeneid, excluding proper names. The data derives from human inspection and parsing of the Aeneid carried out by LASLA. The data were analyzed and collated with the DCC Core Latin Vocabulary by Lara Frymark, Seth Levin, and Connor Ford. The visualization was produced by Seth Levin using Tableau. In the Aeneid, the only non-core lemma present in the top eighty is the interjection O. See full data here.

Type
Image
License
Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
Agent
Date
2016
Image Credit

Claude Lorrain: Aeneas Hunting

Sketchbook drawing by Claude Lorraine: Coast scene with Aeneas hunting, illustration from Virgil's 'Aeneid', I, 158-93, translated by Annibale Caro, record of painting in the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Brussels from the Liber Veritatis; in foreground Aeneas and Achates hunting a herd of deer, beyond at left the Trojan fleet in a harbour. 1672 Pen and brown ink and grey wash, with grey-brown wash (British Museum)

Associated Passages
Type
Image
License
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs
Date
1672
Dimensions
193mm x 255 mm
Inscription
Signed, inscribed and dated: "CLAVDIO/fecit/Roma/1672[formerly 1670]" and inscribed: "libro Di Virgilio/folio 10" Verso inscribed with notes
Location
London: The British Museum

Bonasone: Neptune calming the Tempest

Comments

Attributed to Giulio Bonasone (Italian, active Rome and Bologna, 1531–after 1576) (in Bartsch, but questioned)

Attributed to Girolamo Fagiuoli (Italian, active Bologna, by 1539, died 1574 Bologna) by S. Boorsch

After Perino del Vaga (Pietro Buonaccorsi) (Italian, Florence 1501–1547 Rome) (Metropolitan Museum)

Bartsch, although he lists this print under Bonasone, doubts that it was done by this artist. The editors of The Illustrated Bartsch concur in doubting the attribution. Massari accepts the attribution. (Museum of Fine Art, Boston)

Associated Passages
Type
Image
Date
1531–76
Culture
Medium
Location
New York, Metropolitan Museum

Latium

Latium as described in Aeneid Book 1, and significant peoples around the region.

 

Ancient coastline and elevation data supplied by the Ancient World Mapping Center.

Comments

Aeneid 1.1-7

Arma virumque canō, Trōiae quī prīmus ab ōrīs

Ītaliam fātō profugus Lāvīniaque vēnit

lītora, multum ille et terrīs iactātus et altō

vī superum, saevae memorem Iūnōnis ob īram,

multa quoque et bellō passus, dum conderet urbem5

īnferretque deōs Latiō; genus unde Latīnum

Albānīque patrēs atque altae moenia Rōmae.

Aeneid 1.258-259

fāta tibī; cernēs urbem et prōmissa Lavīnī

moenia,

Aeneid 1.269-271

trīgintā magnōs volvendīs mēnsibus orbīs

imperiō explēbit, rēgnumque ab sēde Lavīnī

trānsferet, et Longam multā vī mūniet Albam.

Lavinium:

Alba Longa:

Roma:

Latium:

Type
Map
License
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
Date
June 2015
Medium
Image Credit

Brant: The End of the Duel

On the right, one of the Dirae, the Dread Ones, appearing as a bird, specifically an owl, flies around the head of Turnus, filling him with fear (843-68). Aeneas pursues Turnus with his large spear, and Turnus holds a massive rock which he attempts to throw at Aeneas (895-914). In the upper left, Juturna sees the owl by Turnus's head and knows it is a sign that Turnus will die (869-84). Grieving, she sinks down into her river (885-6). On the left, Aeneas has hit Turnus with his spear and kneels over the Rutulian hero (919-27). Turnus begs for mercy (929-39), which Aeneas almost grants. Then Aeneas sees the belt of Pallas (940-4) which, in this image, Turnus wears around his waist, and he plunges his sword into the chest of Turnus.

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 408v, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

Subjects
License
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
Date
1502
Culture
Medium
Location
University of Heidelberg

Brant: During the Duel

In the fighting ring, Aeneas struggles to retrieve his spear from the stump of an olive tree (766-76). Turnus prays to Faunus, to whom the tree was sacred, to delay Aeneas's success in obtaining the spear until he himself is armed (776-9). Above this scene, Jupiter confronts Juno, who watches Turnus from the clouds (791-806). She agrees to stop thwarting Aeneas and helping Turnus as long as the victory of Aeneas does not create a new Troy, but instead a stronger Latium (808-42). In this image, the artist has placed the fighting ring right at the edge of the water, though other images do not show it anywhere near the water, and Vergil makes it clear that the fighting happens on a large plain. The water may be intended to enhance the fenced-in feeling of the ring itself.

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 407v, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

Subjects
License
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
Date
1502
Culture
Medium
Location
University of Heidelberg
Subskrybuj Aeneid