Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg

Brant: Preparation for Duel

In the foreground, Turnus prepares for the duel. On either side of him, his two charioteers prepare his two horses for the fight, and the charioteer on the right combs the mane of his horse (81-86). Between the horses, a servant helps Turnus put on his armor. The servant holds a shield and sword, and hands a helmet to Turnus, who holds a spear in his hand and a sword at his waist (87-94). In the upper left, Aeneas, who has heard the challenge given by Turnus, gives a messenger his answer and terms of peace to King Latinus, who stands in the upper right outside Laurentum awaiting the response (107-12).

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 393r, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

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Brant: Amata and Turnus Stand before Laurentum

Amata, Turnus, Latinus and Lavinia stand before the city of Laurentum. Latinus, seated on a horse, looks toward Turnus with what appears to be a concerned expression. Through wear or erasure the upper portion of the horse and a bit of Latinus are gone. Turnus points toward Latinus and Lavinia, but appears to direct his attention toward Amata. Latinus has attempted to convince Turnus to abandon his foolish pride, explaining that, even if he defeats Aeneas, he still would not be able to marry Lavinia (18-44). When Turnus is still determined to kill Aeneas in a fight to the death (45-53), Queen Amata tearfully asks him to stop fighting the Trojans; she believes that if Aeneas kills Turnus, he will kill her, as well, or take her as a captive (54-63). Lavinia, who has been listening silently to the conversation, weeps and blushes at her mother's speech (64-9). Turnus is moved, but not persuaded to change his mind (70-80).

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 391r, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

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Brant: Death of Camilla

Toward the middle of the image, Camilla has been hit in the chest with the spear thrown by Arruns [Arnus] (794-831). Arruns, to the right, has been hit in the chest by an arrow loosed by Opis, who stands at the top of the image framed by clouds (836-67). At the left and right edges of the image, Volscian and Rutulian soldiers flee the battle (868-75). In the upper left, people watch from the city. These are either soldiers who have fled the battlefield and locked themselves in the city (883-6) or women who mourn the death of Camilla. In the upper right corner, Turnus, who has received news of the dearth of Camilla, leads his men to the battlefield (896-902). Aeneas, shown here with Ascanius by his side, enters the field with his sword drawn, ready for battle (903-11).

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 387v, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

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Brant: Fight Scene with Camilla

A battle breaks out between the Trojans and Etruscans, and the Latins, Rutulians, and Volscians. Camilla fights in the upper center of the image, among a crowd of warriors (648-52). In the upper right, Tarchon [Tarthon], holding his sword in one hand and the blade of a spear or sword in his other hand, charges toward Venulus [Vemilus] (741-58). From the left, Arruns [Aruns] charges toward Camilla, attacking her as she pursues another target (759-82). Raising his spear, Arruns prays to Apollo to hit his target (783-93). In the foreground, unlabeled warriors vie in battle.

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 385r, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

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Brant: Camilla and Turnus

Turnus and his troops ride from the right of the image to a place outside the fortress, ready for battle (486-97). Camilla and her troops meet him (498-501), arriving from the left. The standard she carries has two crossed arrows, symbolizing her close relationship with the goddess Diana (532-86). Turnus asks her to meet the Trojan cavalry that are advancing in the field, so that he may face Aeneas (507-21). At the top of the image, the goddess Opis, who is part of Diana's retinue, points a bow and arrow at Aeneas, who is placed close to the troops of Camilla, but is not meant to be associated with them. The arrow is pointed at Aeneas because one of his men is destined to kill Camilla, and Diana intends for the perpetrator to die for his actions by the hand of Opis (587-96). The dog in the lower right corner would be appropriate in a hunt scene, but it is a bit out of place here.

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 383r, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

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Brant: Amata and Lavinia in a Temple in Laurentum

In the top left corner, Aeneas rides toward the battlefield (446). Below this, a messenger gives a message to Latinus that the Trojans approach the battlefield prepared for battle (447-50). A messenger would not usually carry this kind of message in a written form, but the presence of a letter in the messenger's hand helps to identify the figure. Latinus is visibly saddened by this news, because he still strongly desires peace (469-73). Behind Latinus, a Latin soldier arms for battle (453-4). In the center of the image, Amata has brought Lavinia and several mothers from the city to the temple of Pallas Athena, portrayed here as a small round temple. With the help of the women, she prays to the goddess to let Turnus kill Aeneas (477-85). The city walls are prominent in this image, emphasizing that all the actions take place within the city, and that all actions within the city are preparing to defend it.

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 381v, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

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Brant: Latinus at the Assembly of the Latins

Latinus has called an assembly of his closest advisers to decide what to do once they hear the envoy from Diomedes. The hall is stately, much more spacious than the halls of Dido. After hearing from Venulus the response given by Diomedes, which is that the Latins should make alliance with Aeneas (252-95), Latinus wishes to do so immediately (296-335). In a long-winded speech, Drances, on the left, agrees and further insists that Latinus give Lavinia to Aeneas (343-67). He argues that if Turnus insists on making war on Aeneas, Turnus should challenge Aeneas directly (368-75). Turnus, offended, defends his honor and argues that the defeat so far does not mean that the Latins should surrender, but that they should fight harder (376-445).

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 378r, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

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Brant: Duplicate of "Latinus Sitting amidst Grieving Women"

In this image, the Latins bury their dead. The number of indistinguishable dead was so great that the Latins burned them all on one large pyre and then buried the ashes and bones under a large mound of earth right where the pyre had been (203-12). In the upper left, an envoy sent to Diomedes for help has come back bringing a refusal from Diomedes (225-30). In the upper right, Latinus, sitting among grieving citizens outside Laurentum, hears the news and is struck with unbearable grief himself (231).

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 375v, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

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Brant: Evander Kneels before the Corpse of Pallas

The corpse of Pallas has arrived at Pallanteum. On the right stand the Trojan soldiers who brought Pallas back to Pallanteum (145-6). On the left, near the gates of the city, two Arcadians, wearing ceremonial hooded robes hold funeral torches (142-4). They stand in front of several of the matrons of Pallanteum (146-7). In the center, King Evander kneels at the bier that bears Pallas and gives a mournful speech, in which he asks Aeneas to avenge the death of Pallas by killing Turnus (148-81). It is worth noting that this scene happens at night (citation).

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 373v, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

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Brant: The Cremation of the Dead

Aeneas, Tarchon, and Ascanius stand with other soldiers to the right of a pyre for the cremation of the Trojan and Etruscan dead. According to Vergil, multiple pyres would have been built, so that the various clans could cremate their dead separately (184-7), but for the sake of illustration, just one pyre is shown. In the upper right are the horses that ceremonially circle the pyre (188-90). In the upper left, a man on horseback sounds a horn in mourning. Below him, a man throws a breastplate, Latin spoils, onto the fire (193-4). Another throws into the fire a sword, and what seems to be a spur, war equipment of the dead (195-6). At the bottom of the image, pigs and cattle have been sacrificed, disemboweled, as offerings to Death and to the gods (197-9).

Woodcut illustration from the “Strasbourg Vergil,” edited by Sebastian Brant: Publii Virgilii Maronis Opera cum quinque vulgatis commentariis expolitissimisque figuris atque imaginibus nuper per Sebastianum Brant superadditis (Strasbourg: Johannis Grieninger, 1502), fol. 374v, executed by an anonymous engraver under the direction of Brant.

Comments

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521) was a humanist scholar of many competencies. Trained in classics and law at the University of Basel, Brant later lectured in jurisprudence there and practiced law in his native city of Strasbourg. While his satirical poem Das Narrenschiff won him considerable standing as a writer, his role in the transmission of Virgil to the Renaissance was at least as important. In 1502 he and Strasbourg printer Johannes Grüninger produced a major edition of Virgil’s works, along with Donatus’ Life and the commentaries of Servius, Landino, and Calderini, with more than two hundred woodcut illustrations. (Annabel Patterson)

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