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Eimmart: the death of Turnus

Aeneas stands before two armies, bristling with lances in the background. The fallen Turnus, wearing the sword-belt of Pallas, has a sword in his the chest and over him flutters an owl. The engraving does not illustrate the verses XII 926f. with the wounding of Turnus in the thigh by the lance throw of Aeneas, but the closing verses XII 950-952.

Aeneas stößt- vor zwei lanzenstarrenden Heeren im Hintergrund- dem am Boden liegenden Turnus, der den Schwertgurt des Pallas trägt und über dem ein Käuzchen flatter, das Schwert in die Brust. Illustriert werdenalso nicht die Verse XII 926f. mit der Verwundung des Turnus am Oberschenkel durch den Lanzenwurf des Aeneas, sondern die Schlussverse XII 950-952. (Suerbaum)

Engraving from a German children’s picture-book version of the Aeneid by G. J. Lang and G. C. Eimmart, “A tapestry of Roman virtues as seen in Vergil’s Aeneas and his brave deeds, rendered in sparkling engravings, as illustrations of the remarkable deeds of antiquity, for the common benefit of noble youth,” (Peplus virtutum Romanarum in Aenea Virgiliano eiusque rebus fortiter gestis, ad maiorem antiquitatis et rerum lucem, communi iuventutis sacratae bono, aere renitens) (Nuremburg: J.L. Buggel, 1688), pl. 50.

Comments

The final scene of the Aeneid is Turnus’ defeat and death at Aeneas’ hands. Turnus lies on the ground, taken down by a spear to the thigh (line 926). Above him flies an owl, one of the Dirae sent down by Jupiter at line 845, and not to be confused with the owl attributed to Minerva. In lines 861-888 she takes on the form of a bird and flies at Turnus’ face, an ill omen, which his sister divine Juturna recognizes. In the engraving the owl seems to cast a shadow on the men beneath it, and Turnus’ arm is raised as much in defense against the bird as against Aeneas. The leader of the Trojans, carrying his famous shield, has just seen the sword-belt of Pallas around Turnus’ body. Turnus’ words of supplication had been about to sway Aeneas towards mercy, but seeing the reminder of the dead boy pushes Aeneas in the opposite direction and he kills Turnus in the name of Pallas. In the second to last line of the poem, Turnus’ death is described with exactly the same words as Aeneas’ entrance at line 92 in Book I: “solvuntur frigore membra…” (Lucy McInerney)

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1688
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21.86x16.92cm
Inscription
Lib. XII. Aen. v. 926. Per medium stridens transit femur. incidit ictus/ Ingens ad terram duplicato poplite Turnus.
Location
Bavarian State Library, Munich
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Eimmart: Venus heals Aeneas

The wounded Aeneas, who has removed his armor, leans on a spear, surrounded by Achates, Mnestheus and (far left) Ascanius, while the doctor Iapyx prepares a bandage, and warriors (front right) look through a drug case. Behind the back of the doctor a hovering Venus approaches with the miraculous healing herb Dictamnum.

Eine figurenreiche Szene mit mindestens 10 Gestalten im Vordergrund: Der verwundete Aeneas, dem man die Rüstung ausgezogen hat, stützt sich, umgeben von Achates, Mnestheus und (ganz links) Ascanius auf eine Lanze, während der Arzt Iapyx einen Verband vorbereitet und Krieger (vorn rechts) in einem Arznei-Koffer suchen. Hinter dem Rücken des Arztes schwebt die Venus mit dem wundertätigen Heilkraut Dictamnum heran. (Suerbaum)

Engraving from a German children’s picture-book version of the Aeneid by G. J. Lang and G. C. Eimmart, “A tapestry of Roman virtues as seen in Vergil’s Aeneas and his brave deeds, rendered in sparkling engravings, as illustrations of the remarkable deeds of antiquity, for the common benefit of noble youth,” (Peplus virtutum Romanarum in Aenea Virgiliano eiusque rebus fortiter gestis, ad maiorem antiquitatis et rerum lucem, communi iuventutis sacratae bono, aere renitens) (Nuremburg: J.L. Buggel, 1688), pl. 49.

 

Comments

This engraving deals with the scene from lines 383-424, where Aeneas deals with an arrow wound received in battle. Mnestheus, Achates, and Ascanius are all named at 384, the healer Iapyx at 391. Aeneas’ first reaction is to try and cut the arrow out with a sword (389). What follows is a scene in which Aeneas complains, Iulus cries, and Iapyx tries his best to get the arrow head out with a pair of forceps (404). The fighting approaches closer to camp (407-410), which Eimmart illustrates with smoke rising in the background and a group of warriors behind Ascanius preparing to fight again. Finally Venus intervenes to heal her son. In the engraving she is holding the healing plant dittany in her hand as she appears behind Iapyx; she is about to slip the plant into his basin of water. (Lucy McInerney)

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1688
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Lib. XII. Aen. v. 384. Interea Aeneam ‘Mnestheus, et fidus Achates,/ Ascaniusque comes, - -/ usque 422.
Location
Bavarian State Library, Munich
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Eimmart: Messapus kills Auletes

This engraving shows fighting at the altar on which a fire is still burning; next to it a shocked priest stands. A rider misses a king, who has just fallen to the ground, with his lance. (This is probably not a Trojan attacking Latinus, but Messapus killing the Etruscan king Auletes.) Whether the warrior with the ax in his left hand at the altar is Aeneas is not clear.

Kampfgetümmel am Altar, auf dem noch ein Feuer brennt und neben dem ein entsetzter Priester steht. Ein Reiter verfehlt mit seiner Lanze einen zu Boden gestürzten König nur knapp. (Wahrscheinlich ist das kein Trojaner, der Latinus angreift, sondern Messapus, der den Etrusker Auletes tötet.) Ob der Krieger am Altar mit dem Beil in der Linken Aeneas sein soll, ist nicht klar. (Suerbaum)

Engraving from a German children’s picture-book version of the Aeneid by G. J. Lang and G. C. Eimmart, “A tapestry of Roman virtues as seen in Vergil’s Aeneas and his brave deeds, rendered in sparkling engravings, as illustrations of the remarkable deeds of antiquity, for the common benefit of noble youth,” (Peplus virtutum Romanarum in Aenea Virgiliano eiusque rebus fortiter gestis, ad maiorem antiquitatis et rerum lucem, communi iuventutis sacratae bono, aere renitens) (Nuremburg: J.L. Buggel, 1688), pl. 48.

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1688
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Inscription
Lib. XII. Aen. v. 283. Deripuere aras, it toto turbida caelo/ Tempestas telorum, ac ferreus ingruit imber./ usque 308
Location
Bavarian State Library, Munich
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Eimmart: the death of Arruns

Winged Opis floating on a cloud has shot Arruns with an arrow; he has fallen from his horse and is lying on the ground. In the left background a grave monument can be seen, which is mentioned at the beginning of the text passage.

Die auf einer Wolke schwebende geflügelte Opis hat Arruns mit einem Pfeil erschossen; er ist vom Pferd gestürzt und liegt auf dem Boden. Links im Hintergrund ist ein Grabdenkmal zu sehen, das zu Beginn der Textpassage erwähnt wird. (Suerbaum)

Engraving from a German children’s picture-book version of the Aeneid by G. J. Lang and G. C. Eimmart, “A tapestry of Roman virtues as seen in Vergil’s Aeneas and his brave deeds, rendered in sparkling engravings, as illustrations of the remarkable deeds of antiquity, for the common benefit of noble youth,” (Peplus virtutum Romanarum in Aenea Virgiliano eiusque rebus fortiter gestis, ad maiorem antiquitatis et rerum lucem, communi iuventutis sacratae bono, aere renitens) (Nuremburg: J.L. Buggel, 1688), pl. 47.

Comments

Having fled Camilla’s death, Arruns is shot down by Opis at Diana’s command. The tomb monument in the upper left hand corner is mentioned at 849-851; the inscription says “Dercenno Laur.”, for Dercennus, king of the Laurentines. Opis wields a bow in the upper right hand corner of the engraving, as appropriate for a follower of Diana, and she looks down scornfully at the fallen Trojan. His companions are galloping away, leaving Arruns do die alone in the dust, as at 864-865. (Lucy McInerney)

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Lib. XI. Aen. v. 850. - - - Fuit ingens monte sub alto/ Regis Dercenni terreno ex aggere bustum/ Antiqui Laurentis, opacaque ilice tectum.
Location
Bavarian State Library, Munich
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Eimmart: the death of Camilla

Cavalry Battle: Camilla falls from her horse, hit by a spear in the chest, and is caught by her companions; the mounted figure in the middle is obviously another Amazon.

Reiterschlacht: Camilla sinkt, von einem Speer in die Brust getroffen, vom Pferd und wird von ihren Gefährtinnen aufgefangen; die berittene Figur in der Mitte ist offenbar eine weitere Amazone. (Suerbaum)

Engraving from a German children’s picture-book version of the Aeneid by G. J. Lang and G. C. Eimmart, “A tapestry of Roman virtues as seen in Vergil’s Aeneas and his brave deeds, rendered in sparkling engravings, as illustrations of the remarkable deeds of antiquity, for the common benefit of noble youth,” (Peplus virtutum Romanarum in Aenea Virgiliano eiusque rebus fortiter gestis, ad maiorem antiquitatis et rerum lucem, communi iuventutis sacratae bono, aere renitens) (Nuremburg: J.L. Buggel, 1688), pl. 46.

Comments

While in pursuit of the Trojan priest Chloreus, Camilla has unknowingly been hunted by Arruns. In this scene Arruns has shot her, and may even be depicted in the left hand background as the man fleeing on a horse. At 804-606 the cowardly Arruns is described as running away before he can be seen or caught by Camilla’s entourage. (Lucy McInerney)

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1688
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Lib. XI. Aen. v. 804. Concurrunt trepidae comites, dominamque ruentem/ Suscipiunt.
Location
Bavarian State Library, Munich
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Eimmart: Camilla kills a soldier

Camilla lunges at the vanguard of the enemy riders and thrusts her lance in the chest of an unarmored mounted opponent.

Camilla stürzt sich an der Spitze ihrer Reiterinnen auf die Feinde und stößt einem ungepanzerten berittenen Gegner die Lanze in die Brust. (Suerbaum)

Engraving from a German children’s picture-book version of the Aeneid by G. J. Lang and G. C. Eimmart, “A tapestry of Roman virtues as seen in Vergil’s Aeneas and his brave deeds, rendered in sparkling engravings, as illustrations of the remarkable deeds of antiquity, for the common benefit of noble youth,” (Peplus virtutum Romanarum in Aenea Virgiliano eiusque rebus fortiter gestis, ad maiorem antiquitatis et rerum lucem, communi iuventutis sacratae bono, aere renitens) (Nuremburg: J.L. Buggel, 1688), pl. 45.

Comments

Camilla takes up almost the entire second half of Book XI. This engraving corresponds to XI 648ff, Camilla’s entrance into the action of the fighting. She carries Diana’s golden quiver, described at 652, and wears a purple cloak (714-715), wielding a javelin in this scene. Behind her are two more of the “Italides,” or daughters of Italy, as they are called at 657. To her left is probably Tarpeia, who is described by Virgil as carrying a bronze axe (656), which can be seen attached to her waist, although here she wields a studded mace. Camilla is in the act of stabbing an opponent, possible Eunaeus, who is described at 666-667 as having an “exposed chest.” (Lucy McInerney)

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Date
1688
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Inscription
Lib. XI. Aen. v. 648. At medias inter caedes exsultat Amazon,/ Unum exserta latus pugnae, pharetrata Camilla.
Location
Bavarian State Library, Munich
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Eimmart: Battle Scene

This engraving depicts the thick of the battle with warriors on foot, and one horse lying on the ground at the left. Some of the people are not safe to identify, for instance Aeneas never swings a lance against Mezentius. It is most likely the scene at X 794ff., in which Lausus protects his wounded father Mezentius with his sword and shield against the enemy, Aeneas.

Schlachtgetümmel unter Kriegern zu Fuß, doch liegt links ein Pferd am Boden. Bestimmte Personen sind nicht sicher zu identifizieren, jedenfalls schwingt Aeneas keine Lanze gegen Mezentius. Am ehesten handelt es sich um die Szene X 794ff., in der Lausus seinen verwundeten Vater Mezentius gegen den mit dem Schwert andringenden Aeneas mit den Schild schützt. (Suerbaum, p. 440)

Engraving from a German children’s picture-book version of the Aeneid by G. J. Lang and G. C. Eimmart, “A tapestry of Roman virtues as seen in Vergil’s Aeneas and his brave deeds, rendered in sparkling engravings, as illustrations of the remarkable deeds of antiquity, for the common benefit of noble youth,” (Peplus virtutum Romanarum in Aenea Virgiliano eiusque rebus fortiter gestis, ad maiorem antiquitatis et rerum lucem, communi iuventutis sacratae bono, aere renitens) (Nuremburg: J.L. Buggel, 1688), pl. 44.

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Date
1688
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21.86 x 16.92cm
Inscription
Lib. X. Aen. v. 783. Tum pius Aeneas hastam iacit./ usque 800.
Location
Bavarian State Library, Munich
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Eimmart: Turnus takes Pallas' sword belt

Turnus robs the slain Pallas of his sword belt. There are foot soldiers, riders and a chariot with charioteer in the background.

Turnus raubt dem erschlagenen Pallas den Schwertgurt; im Hintergrund Fußsoldaten, Reiter und ein Zweigespann mit Wagenlenker. (Suerbaum)

Engraving from a German children’s picture-book version of the Aeneid by G. J. Lang and G. C. Eimmart, “A tapestry of Roman virtues as seen in Vergil’s Aeneas and his brave deeds, rendered in sparkling engravings, as illustrations of the remarkable deeds of antiquity, for the common benefit of noble youth,” (Peplus virtutum Romanarum in Aenea Virgiliano eiusque rebus fortiter gestis, ad maiorem antiquitatis et rerum lucem, communi iuventutis sacratae bono, aere renitens) (Nuremburg: J.L. Buggel, 1688), pl. 43.

 

Comments

The death of Pallas is a very important moment in the Aeneid, not least because Turnus seals his own fate with his brutal treatment of the young Arcadian. Turnus and Pallas are very clearly the main subject of this engraving, with the background drawn in with lighter lines to make the central pair pop out. Turnus is in the act of robbing the dead Pallas of his sword belt. The placement of his foot on Pallas’ stomach emphasizes the brutality of the whole episode. Turnus certainly comes off at his worst in this scene, ordering his troops to stand aside as he kills Pallas himself and declaring that he wished Evander could be there to witness the death of his son (cuperem ipse parens spectator adesset, X. 443). In the middleground are the troops of Turnus, and in the far background is the camp of the Trojans and Arcadians. (Lucy McInerney)

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1688
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Inscription
Lib. X. Aen: v. 487. Corruit in vulnus: sonitum super arma dedere:/ Et terram hostile moriens petit ore cruento./ usque 500.
Location
Bavarian State Library, Munich
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Eimmart: The sea nymphs come to Aeneas

Aeneas, standing in the bow of the flagship of his fleet, comes across sea nymphs, the former Trojan ships.

Aeneas, im Bug des Flaggschiffs einer Flotte stehend, begegnet auf dem Meer den Nymphen, den ehemaligen trojanishcen Schiffen. (Suerbaum)

Engraving from a German children’s picture-book version of the Aeneid by G. J. Lang and G. C. Eimmart, “A tapestry of Roman virtues as seen in Vergil’s Aeneas and his brave deeds, rendered in sparkling engravings, as illustrations of the remarkable deeds of antiquity, for the common benefit of noble youth,” (Peplus virtutum Romanarum in Aenea Virgiliano eiusque rebus fortiter gestis, ad maiorem antiquitatis et rerum lucem, communi iuventutis sacratae bono, aere renitens) (Nuremburg: J.L. Buggel, 1688), pl. 42.

 

Comments

During Aeneas' return trip from Pallanteum, the former fleet of Aeneas approaches him in the middle of the night as sea nymphs. Cymodocea, one of the nymphs, addresses Aeneas and tells him of the fighting that has broken out at Alba Longa. She is likely the nymph in the center of the engraving, with one arm outstretched, as described at lines 225 and 226. (Lucy McInerney)

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1688
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Lib. X. Aen. v. 219. Atque illi medio in spatio, chorus ecce suarum./ Occuurrit comitum:/ usque 235.
Location
Bavarian State Library, Munich
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Eimmart: The deaths of Euryalus and Nisus

A rider (probably Volcens) thrusts his sword into the chest of a falling warrior (probably Euryalus). Some dead bodies lie on the ground and the whole right half of the engraving is filled by riders with bristling spears.

Ein Reiter (wohl Volcens) stößt einem niedersinkenden Krieger (wohl Euryalus) das Schwert in die Brust: am Boden liegen einige Leichen; die ganze rechte Hälfte des Kupferstichs ist gefüllt von Reitern mit starrenden Lanzen. (Suerbaum)

Engraving from a German children’s picture-book version of the Aeneid by G. J. Lang and G. C. Eimmart, “A tapestry of Roman virtues as seen in Vergil’s Aeneas and his brave deeds, rendered in sparkling engravings, as illustrations of the remarkable deeds of antiquity, for the common benefit of noble youth,” (Peplus virtutum Romanarum in Aenea Virgiliano eiusque rebus fortiter gestis, ad maiorem antiquitatis et rerum lucem, communi iuventutis sacratae bono, aere renitens) (Nuremburg: J.L. Buggel, 1688), pl. 41.

Comments

The action in this scene takes place at night, which is perhaps why the engraving is so dark. Suerbaum identifies the wounded man in the center of the engraving as Euryalus, but it is just as likely to be Nisus, and that Euryalus is the beautiful young man beneath him who is clearly already dead. A helmet sits on the ground in front of him, perhaps the very helmet that gave him away to the enemy at line 373. After witnessing Euryalus’ death at the hands of Volcens, Nisus fights the Rutulian and kills him, but is quickly slain himself. He falls across the body of his dead friend at lines 444-445. (Lucy McInerney)

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1688
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Inscription
Lib . IX. Aen. v. 440. Quem circum glomerati hostes, hinc comminus atque hinc/ Proturbant./ usque 445
Location
Bavarian State Library, Munich
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