Chapter 4.26

Pūgnātum est ab utrīsque ācriter. Nostrī tamen, quod neque ōrdinēs servāre neque fīrmiter īnsistere neque sīgna subsequī poterant atque alius aliā ex nāvī quibuscumque sīgnīs occurrerat sē aggregābat, māgnopere perturbābantur; hostēs vērō, nōtīs omnibus vadīs, ubi ex lītore aliquōs singulārēs ex nāvī ēgredientēs cōnspēxerant, incitātīs equīs impedītōs adoriēbantur, plūrēs paucōs circumsistēbant, aliī ab latere apertō in ūniversōs tēla cōiciēbant. Quod cum animadvertisset Caesar, scaphās longārum nāvium, item speculātōria nāvigia mīlitibus complērī iussit et, quōs labōrantēs cōnspēxerat, hīs subsidia submittēbat. Nostrī, simul in āridō cōnstitērunt, suīs omnibus cōnsecūtīs, in hostēs impetum fēcērunt atque eōs in fugam dedērunt; neque longius prōsequī potuērunt, quod equitēs cursum tenēre atque īnsulam capere nōn potuerant. Hoc ūnum ad prīstinam fōrtūnam Caesarī dēfuit.

After a fierce contest the Britons are put to flight.

pugnatum est ab utrisque acriter: ‘sharp fighting was kept up by both sides’ (Kelsey)( A&G 208.d)

alius alia ex navi: men from different ships (Allen & Greenough); ‘one from this ship, another from that…’ (Kelsey) ( A&G 315.c)

quibuscumque…aggregabat: ‘gathered about whatever standards they chanced upon’ aggrego, -are: [ad + grex, flock], unite in a flock; assemble, join, attach. (Walker)

signis: signa were the standards of individual cohorts. (Towle & Jenks)

ordines servare: ‘to keep the ranks’ (Kelsey)

singulares: ‘one by one’ (Kelsey); ‘scattered soldiers’ (Allen & Greenough)

vadis: ‘the shallow places’ (Towle and Jenks)

ubi…conspexerant…adoriebantur, etc.: a general condition, ‘whenever they saw,’ etc. (Allen & Greenough). The pluperfect instead of the usual perfect with ubi, expresses repeated action, just as the following imperfects do. (Walker) ( A&G 542, 518.b)

adoriebantur: ‘would attack’ (Allen & Greenough)

universos: universos does not mean all the Roman soldiers; for the line of ships from which they were landing must have been fully a mile long. The word is contrasted with singulares and means 'an entire group' (Rice Holmes).

scapha, -ae f.: skiff, boat (Walker)

speculatorius, -a, -um: of a spy, spying, scounting. (Walker)

simul: = simul atque (Walker)( A&G 543).

neque: 'but...not' (Walker).

longius: 'very far' (Walker)

equites: they are still on board ship

capere: 'reach' (Walker)

hoc unum: the pursuit by the cavalry was an important part of every regular engagement (Walker).

hoc unum…defuit: In fact, a tide of disasters was now setting in to continue several years (Allen & Judson).

firmĭter: adv., firmly, strongly, steadfastly

insisto, -ĕre, -stĭti: to set foot on, tread on, place oneself on; stand still or on

subsĕquor, -ui, -cūtum: follow close after or immediately

aggrĕgo, -āre: add to the flock; associate

magnŏpĕrē adv.: greatly, very much

perturbo, -āre: throw into confusion or disorder, confuse, disturb

vădum, -i n.: a shallow, shoal, ford

singŭlāris, -e: one by one, one at a time, single, alone

conspĭcĭo, -ere, -spexi, -spectum: look at attentively, get sight of, descry

incĭto, -āre: set in rapid motion, hasten, urge forward

impĕdĭo, -īre, -īvi, -ītum: entangle, ensnare, hinder

ădŏrĭor, -orīri, -ortus: rise up at; attack, attempt, undertake

circumsisto, -ĕre, -stĕti: to place oneself around; surround

ūnĭversus, -a, -um: all together, all taken collectively, whole entire

cōicio, -ere, -iēci, -iectum: to throw or bring together

animadverto, -ere, -ti, -sum: direct the mind or attention to, take heed, consider, remark, perceive, notice

scăpha, -ae f.: small boat, skiff

spĕcŭlātōrĭus, -a, -um: of a look-out, scout; spy-boat (+ navigia)

nāvĭgĭum, -i n.: vessel, ship

complĕo, -ēre, -plēvi, -plētum: fill up; complete the number of an army, fleet, or legion; to man; fill one with feeling; finish

subsĭdĭum, -ii n.: auxiliary troops, line of reserves; support, assistance, aid 

summitto, -ĕre: let down, send under; send up from below; send as help

pristĭnus, -a, -um: former, previous, earlier; just past, of yesterday; old fashioned

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Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2011, revised and enlarged 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-02-3. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/caesar/book-4/chapter-4-26