The Ω-Conjugation: Vowel Verbs, Not Contracting

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The Present System

255. The present system includes the indicative present and imperfect, with the subjunctive, optative, imperative, infinitive, and participle, active and middle (passive). All regular ω-verbs are conjugated in the present system like παύω (252, 253, 254).

256. The present stem (indicative) is made from the verb stem in several ways, and verbs are classed (in the present system) accordingly.

For convenience in later use (since all ω-presents are inflected alike), the moods of forming the present stem in all classes of ω-presents are here described together (257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262).

257. Formative-Vowel Class. The suffix -ο:ε- (25), called the formative vowel, is added. Verbs that have a stronger and weaker form of the root take in this system the stronger.

Verb stem Present stem Present indicative
παυ-  stop

(i. e. παυο-, παυε-)

λιπ-, λειπ-  leave λειπο:ε- λείπω
φυγ-, φευγ-  flee φευγο:ε- φεύγω

a. In γίγνομαι (becοme) for γι-γεν-ο-μαι, the verb stem is reduplicated. This present reduplication consists in prefixing the initial consonant with ι. So also in the following.

πῑ́πτω (fall) for πι-πετ-ο

ἴσχω (hold) for σι-σεχ-ω (54)

τίκτω (bring forth) for τι-τεκ-ω

b. Verb stems in -υ-, -ευ- lose -υ- between vowels (27).

πλέω (sail) for πλευ-ω (πλυ-, πλευ-)

ῥέω (flow) for ῥευ-ω (ῥυ-, ῥευ-)

πνέω (blow) for πνευ-ω (πνυ-, πνευ-)

258. Tau Class. The suffix -το:ε- is added. The verb stem always ends in a labial mute, which becomes -π- before -τ- (38.b, 43.a):

Verb stem Present stem Present indicative
ῥῑφ-, ῥιφ-  throw ῥῑπτο:ε- ῥῑ́πτω
τυπ-  strike τυπτο:ε- τύπτω
βλαβ-  harm βλαπτο:ε- βλάπτω
κρυφ-  hide κρυπτο:ε- κρύπτω
ταφ- (47.d)  bury θαπτο:ε- θάπτω

259. Iota Class. The suffix -ιο:ε- is added; for sound-changes see 56.


Verb stem Present stem Present indicative
βαλ-  throw βαλλο:ε- βάλλω
ὀφελ-  increase ὀφελλο:ε- ὀφέλλω

But ὀφείλω [owe (ὀφελ-)] is like those under b.


Verb stem Present stem Present indicative
φαν-  show φαινο:ε- φαίνω
τεν-  stretch τεινο:ε- τείνω
σπερ-  sow σπειρο:ε- σπείρω
ἀμυν-  ward οff ἀμῡνο:ε- ἀμῡ́νω
κριν-  decide κρῑνο:ε- κρῑ́νω


Verb stem Present stem Present indicative
φυλακ- guard φυλασσο:ε- φυλάσσω
ταγ- arrange τασσο:ε- τάσσω
ταραχ- disturb ταρασσο:ε- ταράσσω


Verb stem Present stem Present indicative
φραδ-  tell φραζο:ε- φράζω
ἐλπιδ-  hope ἐλπιζο:ε- ἐλπίζω
oἰμωγ-  lament oἰμωζο:ε- οἰμώζω
κλαγγ-  cry οut κλαζο:ε- κλάζω
σαλπιγγ-  blow trumpet σαλπιζο:ε- σαλπίζω

e. The verb stems καυ- (burn) and κλαυ- (weep) give καίω and κλαίω, with loss of -υ- (27), farther shortened in prose to κᾱ́ω and κλᾱ́ω.

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8.