The Ω-Conjugation Perfect Active System: Vowel Verbs, Not Contracting

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287. This includes a perfect and pluperfect indicative and a perfect subjunctive, optative, infinitive, and participle, in the active.

288. The perfect stem (active) takes a reduplication (§ 289) and adds the tense suffx -κα-, which becomes -κη-, κει-, or -κε- in the pluperfect, -κω:η- in the subjunctive, -κο- in the optative, -κε- in the infinitive, -κοτ-, -κως, -κυιᾱ in the participle. (κα- perfect)

289. The perfect reduplication is formed as follows.

a. If the verb stem begins with a single consonant (except ρ-), that consonant with ε- is prefixed, a rough mute changing to the smooth (§ 47.a).

Present Perfect
κελεύω (κελευ-)
bid
κε-κέλευ-κα
κωλῡ́ω (κωλῡ-)
hinder
κε-κώλῡ-κα
χορεύω (χορευ-)
dance
κε-χόρευ-κα
φυτεύω (φυτευ-)
plant
πε-φύτευ-κα
θηρεύω (θηρευ-)
hunt
τε-θήρευ-κα

b. If the verb stem begins with a mute and liquid (§ 39) the mute with ε- is prefixed.

Present Perfect
πλέω (πλυ-, πλευ-)
sail
πέ-πλευ-κα

c. Otherwise the reduplication is like the augment (§ 265).

Present Perfect
στρατεύω (στρατευ-)
serve in the army
ἐ-στράτευ-κα
ζητέω (ζητε:η-)
seek
bἐ-ζήτη-κα
ῥῑ́πτω (ῥῑφ-)
throw
ἔρ-ρῑφα (48)
ἀδικέω (ἀδικε:η-)
wrong
ἠ-δίκηκα

d. But γιγνώσκω (γνο:ω-) (come to know) makes ἔ-γνωκα; also

Present Perfect
κτάομαι (κτα:η-)
acquire
κέ-κτημαι
πῑ́πτω (πετ-, πτω-)
fall
πέ-πτωκα
μιμνήσκω (μνη-)
remind
μέ-μνημαι

290. A verb compounded with a preposition reduplicates the simple form.

Present Perfect
συγ-χορεύω
dance with
συγ-κεχόρευκα
ἀνα-βαίνω
go up
ἀνα-βέβηκα
εἰσ-άγω
lead in
εἰσ-ῆχα (see a below)

a. The accent never stands before the reduplication.

291. Irregular reduplication is found in the following verbs, some οf which are rather frequent.

a. The verbs described in § 267 (if they have a perfect stem) make the reduplication like the augment.

Present Imperfect Perfect
ἐάω
let
εἴων εἴᾱκα
ἐργάζομαι
work
εἰργαζόμην εἴργασμαι
ὠθέω
push
ἐ-ώθουν ἔωσμαι
ὠνέομαι
buy
ἐωνούμην ἐώνημαι

With double reduplication

Present Imperfect Perfect
ὁράω
see
ἑώρων ἑώρᾱκα
ἀν-οίγω
open
ἀν-έῳγον ἀν-έῳχα

So too the root ικ-, εικ-, makes the perfect ἔοικα (am like), plup. ἐῴκειν.

b. Several verbs beginning with a liquid take ει- as reduplication.

Present Perfect
λαμβάνω
take
εἴ-ληφα
εἴ-λημμαι
λαγχάνω
get by lot
εἴ-ληχα
δια-λέγομαι
converse
δι-εί-λεγμαι
συλ-λέγω
gather
συν-είλοχα
συν-εί-λεγμαι
Root Perfect
ῥε:η-
speak
εἴρηκα
εἴ-ρημαι
μερ-, μαρ-
divide
εἵ-μαρται
it is fated

Similarly the defective εἴωθα (am wont).

c. Some verbs beginning with α-, ε-, ο- reduplicate by prefixing the vowel and the following consonant, lengthening the vowel of the second syllable (Attic reduplicalion).

Also ἐγείρω (wake) ἐγρ-ήγορα (§ 332).

The pluperfect of these verbs augments only initial α- and ο-.

d. The verbs described in § 268.b take the reduplication in the same place as the augment.

Present Perfect
ἀκούω
hear
ἀκ-ήκοα
ἐλαύνω
drive
ἐλ-ήλακα
ἐλέγχω
test
ἐλ-ήλεγμαι
ὀρύττω
dig
ὀρ-ώρυχα

292. The perfect active indicative takes the primary endings; but in the singular -μι and -σι are omitted, the tense suffix becoming -κε- in the third person; -κα-(ν)σι becomes -κᾱσι (§ 51.c).

293. The pluperfect augments the reduplicated stem; if the reduplication is like the augment of the imperfect (§ 289.c, above), no change is made. The tense suffix is -κη-, -κει-, or -κε- as in the paradigm; in the plural and dual both -κε- and -κει- are found. The secondary endings are used, with -σαν in the third plural; the older form in -κη omits in the first person singular.

294. The subjunctive adds the combined suffix -κω:η- to the reduplicated stem, and is inflected like the present active subjunctive. In place of these forms are used also compound forms, the perfect active participle with the subjunctive of εἰμι (am) (§ 384).

295. The optative adds to the reduplicated stem the combined suffix -κοι- and is inflected like the present active optative.

Compound forms, the perfect active participle with the present optative of εἰμι (am) are also used.

296. The infinitive adds -κέ-ναι to the reduplicated stem.

a. All infinitives in -ναι accent the penult.

297. The participle adds to the reduplicated stem the combined suffix -κως, -κυιᾱ, -κος, -κοτ-, and is declined like εἰδώς (§ 172).

Suggested Citation

Meagan Ayer, ed. Goodell’s School Grammar of Attic Greek. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2018. ISBN: 978-1-947822-10-8. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/goodell/%CF%89-conjugation-perfect-active-system-vowel-verbs-not-contracting