A School Grammar of Attic Greek

Thomas Dwight Goodell

COMPLEX SENTENCES/ Clauses with Ὅτε, Ὁπότε, Ἐπεί, Ἡνίκα, Ὁπηνίκα

629. Ἐπεί when, after that, after, introduces temporal clauses, the time of which is earlier than that of the leading clause. When ἄν with the subjunctive follows, ἄν unites with ἐπεί and forms ἐπήν or ἐπν.

Ἐπεί also takes a causal, rarely a concessive, meaning--since, while, whereas, rarely although.
Ἐπεί Clauses are like Ὅς and ὅτε Clauses. With the subjunctive they are always temporal.
Ἐπειδή (with ἄν, ἐπειδν) is a strengthened form of ἐπεί. ἐπειδν is more frequent than ἐπήν or ἐπᾱ́ν.

Ἐπεὶ ἐτελεύτησε Δᾱρεῖος, Tισσαφέρνης διαβάλλει Κῦρον.
After Dareios died, Tissapheres slandered Cyrus.
Xen. Anabasis 1.1.3

 

ἐπεὶ ῡ̔μεῖς ἐμοὶ οὐκ ἐθελετε πείθεσθαι, ἐγὼ σὺν ῡ̔μῖν ἕψομαι.
Since you are unwilling to obey me, I will follow you.
Xen. Anabasis 1.3.6

 

ἐπειδὴ Κῦρος ἐκάλει, λαβὼν ῡ̔μᾶς ἐπορευόμην.
When Cyrus called, I took you and went.
Xen. Anabasis 1.3.4

 

ἐπεὶ τοῦτο ἐγένετο καὶ τοὺς νεκροὺς ὑποσπόνδους ἀπεδίδοσαν, προσιόντες ἀλλήλους πολλοὶ διελέγοντο.
After this was over and they were giving back the dead under a truce, many approached and talked with each other.
Xen. Hellenica 2.4.19

 

Ὁ δʼ ὑπέσχετο ἀνδρὶ ἑκάστῳ δώσειν πέντε ἀγρυρίου μνᾶς ἐπὴν εἰς βαβυλῶνα ἥκωσι.
And he promised that he would give each man five minae in money after they should get to Babylon (the mode of the direct form, ἐπὴν ἥκωμεν, retained).
Xen. Anabasis 1.4.13

 

ἐπειδᾱ̀ν ἅπαντα ἀκούσητε κρῑ́νατε.
After you have heard all, then judge.
Demosthenes 4.14

 

Οἱ μὲν ὄνοι, ἐπεί τις διὥκοι, προδραμόντες ἕστασαν καὶ πάλιν ἐπεὶ πλησιάζοιεν οἱ ἵπποι, ταὐτὸν ἐποίουν.
The asses, whenever any one pursued them, would run forward and then stand still; and again they would do the same whenever the horses drew near.
Xen. Anabasis 1.5.2

 

ἐπειδὴ ἀνοιχθείη, εἰσῇμεν παρὰ τὸν Σωκράτη.
As soon as it (the prison) was opened, we used to go in where Sokrates was.
Plato Phaedo 59d

 

a. Ἐπεί clauses may, like ὅς clauses (612 a), be so loosely joined to the preceding sentence as to be in fact independent:

Ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτό γέ μοι δοκεῖ καλὸν εἶναι.
Although this too seems to me to be a fine thing.
Plato Apology 19e

 

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