A School Grammar of Attic Greek

Thomas Dwight Goodell

COMPLEX SENTENCES/ Ὅτι, Διότι, and Οὕνεκα Clauses

622. Ὅτι, the neuter of ὅστις, becomes a subordinating conjunction (that) after many words of thinking, saying, and the like; it introduces quoted words or thoughts, those of another or of the speaker, as an object, subject, or appositive clause:

Ἐννοησάτω ὅτι πανταχοῦ ταῦτα γίγνεται.
Let him reflect that this happens everywhere.
Xen. Hellenica 2.3.24

 

τοῦτο γιγνώσκων, ὅτι ἥδʼ ἐστὶν ἡ σῴζουσα
recognizing this, that it is she (the state) that saves us
Soph. Antigone 188

 

ἔλεγον ὅτι Κῦρος τέθνηκεν.
They said that Cyrus was dead.
Xen. Anabasis 2.1.3

 

a. Ὅτι also introduces subject and appositive clauses of the same kind after δῆλόν ἐστι it is plain, εἰκός ἐστι it is probable, and the like; these clauses are treated as quoted thoughts:

Δῆλον ὅτι παύσομαι ὁ γε ᾱ̓́κων ποιῶ.
It is plain that I shall stop doing what I do unintentionally.
Plato Apology 26a

 

ἄλλως γνωστὸν ὅτι ἀληθῆ λέγω.
On other grounds it may be perceived that I tell the truth.
Xen. Hellenica 2.3.44

 

b. Ὅτι has also the force of in that and because; in these senses it may introduce any form of the indicative sentence or of the hypothetical optative (479):

Tὰ μὲν ἄλλα ὀρθῶς ἤκουσας· ὅτι δὲ καὶ ἐμὲ οἴει εἰπεῖν τοῦτο, παρήκουσας.
The rest you heard rightly; but in that you suppose I too said this, you heard wrongly.
Plato Protagoras 330e

 

αἱσχῡνόμενος ὅτι σύνοιδα ἐμαυτῷ ἐψευσμένος αὐτόν
ashamed because I am conscious of having deceived him
Xen. Anabasis 1.3.10

 

μὴ θαυμάζετε ὅτι χαλεπῶς φέρω.
Do not be surprised that I feel badly.
Xen. Anabasis 1.3.3

 

τί ποτʼ οὖν τῶν ἐμοὶ πεπρᾱγμένων οὐχὶ μέμνηται; ὅτι τῶν ἀδικημάτων ἂν ἐμέμνητο τῶν αὑτοῦ.
Why, pray, has he not mentioned my acts? Because he would have mentioned his own wrong-doings.
Demosthenes 18.79

 

c. A ὅτι clause often precedes its leading clause:

Ὅτι ἀδικεῖσθαι νομίζει ὑφʼ ἡμῶν οἶδα.
That he thinks himself wronged by us I am sure.
Xen. Anabasis 1.3.10

 

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