A School Grammar of Attic Greek

Thomas Dwight Goodell

COMPLEX SENTENCES/ Ὅς and Ὅστις Clauses

614. The antecedent may be omitted; it is often indefinite and therefore not expressed; it may none the less attract the relative from the accusative to the genitive or dative (613 b):

Nῦν ἐπαινῶ σε ἐφʼ οἷς λέγεις τε καὶ πρᾱ́ττεις.
Now I praise you for what you both say and do.
Xen. Anabasis 3.1.45


ἅ μὴ οἶδα οὐδὲ οἴομαι εἰδέναι.
What I do not know, I also do not think I know.
Plato Apology 21d

ἐμμένομεν οἷς ὡμολογήσαμεν δικαίοις οὖσιν ἢ οὔ;
Do we abide by what we agreed was just, or not?
Plato Crito 50a


a. From the customary omission of the antecedent have arisen some common idiomatic expressions:

εἰσὶν οἵ, more often

ἔστιν οἵ (ὧν, οἷς, οὕs, ἅ)

some, literally there are who, etc.
ἔστιν ὅστις;
is there any one who?
ἐνίοτε (from ἔνι ὅτε) sometimes
ἔστιν οὗ somewhere
ἔστιν ᾗ in some way
οὐκ ἔστιν ὅπως there is no way how

b. With these may be put οὐδεὶς ὅστις οὐ there is no one whο . . . not; through omission of the verb and the attraction of the antecedent to the case of the relative (613 c), the phrase is treated as a single pronoun meaning every one, and is then declined:

Oὐδἐνα ὅντινʼ οὐ κατέκλασε.
He broke down every one.
Plato Phaedo 117d


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