A School Grammar of Attic Greek

Thomas Dwight Goodell

COMPLEX SENTENCES/ Ὅς and Ὅστις Clauses

613. a. The Relative Pronouns take their gender, number, and person from the antecedent; but sense may prevail over form, and when the relative is the subject a predicate noun sometimes prevails over the antecedent.

b. The Relative is often attracted from its proper case to the case of the antecedent, especially from the accusative to the genitive or dative:

Ἄνδρες ἄξιοι τῆς ἐλευθερίᾱς ἧς κέκτησθε
men worthy of the freedom which you possess
Xen. Anabasis 1.7.3


φοβοίμην ἂν τῷ ἡγεμόνι ᾧ δοίη ἕπεσθαι
I should fear to follow the guide whom he may give.
Xen. Anabasis 1.3.17


c. Rarely the antecedent is attracted to the case of the relative, the two standing side by side:

Ἀνεῖλεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἀπόλλων θεοῖς οἷς ἔδει θῡ́ειν.
Apollo in response told him the gods to whom he should sacrifce.
Xen. Anabasis 3.1.6


d. The antecedent may be taken up into the subordinate clause, ὅς agreeing with it adjectively:

Tούτους ἄρχοντας ἐποίει ἦς κατεστρέφετο χώρᾱς.
These he made rulers of the territory which (of what territory) he subdued.
Xen. Anabasis 1.9.14


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