A School Grammar of Attic Greek

Thomas Dwight Goodell


593. Certain particles make more distinct the relation of thought between the circumstantial participle and the rest of the sentence.

a. Ἅτε (less often οἷον, οἷα) shows that the participle is causal:

Ἐπὶ πολὺ ἦν τὰ ὑποζύγια, ἅτε διὰ στενῆς τῆς ὁδοῦ πορευόμενα.
the baggage animals extended a long away, because the road they were following was narrow.
Xen. Anabasis 4.2.13


b. Καίπερ (also καί, though less distinctly) shows that the participle is concessive:

Oὕς ἐγὼ μᾶλλον φοβοῦμαι ἢ τοὺς ἀμφὶ Ἄνυτον, καίπερ ὄντας καὶ τούτους δεινούς
whom I fear more than Anytos and his friends, although these also are formidable
Plato Apology 18b


c. Ὡς with a participle is often rendered by as; but the idiom has been extended far beyond what is possible in English. In many cases ὡς implies that the statement of the participle is the thought of some one mentioned in the context; the translation must vary with the situation:

Tὴν χώρᾱν ἐπέτρεψε διαρπάσαι τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ὡς πολεμίᾱν οὖσαν.
He turned the land over to the Greeks to plunder, as being hostile.
Xen. Anabasis 1.2.19


συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον ὡς ἀποκτενῶν.
He arrested Cyrus, as intending to kill him.
Xen. Anabasis 1.1.3


Ἔλεγε θαρρεῖν ὡς καταστησομένων τούτων εἰς τὸ δέον.
He told him to have no fear, assuring him that this would settle itself properly.
Xen. Anabasis 1.3.8


ἦλθον ἐπί τινα τῶν δοκούντων σοφῶν εἶναι, ὡς ἐνταῦθα ἐλέγξων τὸ μαντεῖον.
I went to one of the men who seemed to be wise, thinking that there I should test the oracle.
Plato Apology 21c


ἐκπῑ́πτοντες παρʼ Ἀθηναίους ὡς βέβαιον ὄν ἀνεχώρουν.
When exiled they withdrew to the Athenians, with the idea that it was safe there.
Thucydides 1.2


d. Ὥσπερ just as, even as (cp. 216) is a strengthened ὡς, but it often requires a different translation:

Ἄλλος ἀνέστη ἐπιδεικνῡ̀ς τὴν εὐήθειαν τοῦ τὰ πλοῖα αἰτεῖν κελεύοντος, ὥσπερ πάλιν τὸν στόλον Κῡ́ρου ποιουμένου.
Another arose, pointing out the simplicity of the man who suggested asking for boats, just as if Cyrus were making the expedition back again.
Xen. Anabasis 1.3.16


κατακείμεθα ὥσπερ ἐξὸν ἡσυχίᾱν ἄγειν.
We are lying here just as if it were possible to remain quiet.
Xen. Anabasis 3.1.14


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