A School Grammar of Attic Greek

Thomas Dwight Goodell


582. The Attributive Participle agrees directly with a noun, with or without an article:

Tὰ καθεστηκότα πρᾱ́γματα
the existing situation (affairs, government)

κεκαλλιεπημένους λόγους
finely worded speeches
Plato Apology 17b


a. The Attributive Participle is often used without a noun, thus becoming itself a noun (555 b). Such a phrase, if brief, may sometimes be rendered by an English noun; if longer, its nearest equivalent is a relative clause:

Oἱ λέγοντες
the speakers

οἱ ἀκούοντες
the hearers

οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες
the inhabitants

ἡ τεκοῦσα
the mother

εἰκῇ λεγόμενα
things stated carelessly

τὰ αὐτοῖς βεβιωμένα
their lives (things lived by them)

τὰ δόξαντα τῇ στρατιᾱ
the opinion (decision) of the army
Xen. Anabasis 1.3.20


Oἱ ταύτην τὴν φήμην κατασκεδάσαντες
those who have spread this report

τοὺς ταῦτα ζητοῦντας
those who investigate these matters
Plato Apology 18c


ὦ καταψηφισάμενοί μου
you who voted against me
Plato Apology 39c


b. Common phrases are ὁ βουλόμενος any one who wishes, ὁ τυχών any chance comer. Note also καλούμενος and λεγόμενος in phrases like

κρήνη ἡ Mίδου καλουμένη
the spring called Midas's, the so-called spring of Midas

τὸν ἱερὸν καλούμενον πόλεμον
the war called Sacred, the so-called Sacred war


c. With οὐ such a participial phrase refers to a particular person, thing, or class; with μή (486) the phrase is more general, a merely supposed case:

Tοῖς μὴ πειθομένοις μετέμελε.
Any who did not take his advice repented.
Xen. Memorabilia 1.1.4


(τοῖς οὐ πειθομένοις would have meant those people, a definite class, who in fact did not take his advice.)

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