A School Grammar of Attic Greek

Thomas Dwight Goodell


549. The Article ὁ, ἡ, τό, originally a demonstrative pronoun, retains that meaning in a few phrases in Attic prose.

a. With μέν and δέ, in ὁ μέν . . . ὁ δέ the one . . .the other, in all the cases; also in τὸ μέν . . . τὸ δέ and τὰ μέν . . . τὰ δέ used adverbially (540):

Oἱ μὲν ἐτόξευον, οἱ δʼ ἐσφενδόνων.
Some used their bows and others their slings.
Xen. Anabasis 3.3.7


τὰ μέν τι μαχόμενοι τὰ δὲ ἀναπαυόμενοι
now fighting a little and now resting
Xen. Anabasis 4.1.14


b. In ὁ δέ, ἡ δέ, τὸ δέ but (or and ) he (she, this), beginning a sentence, when the subject changes:

Κῦρος δίδωσι Κλεάρχῳ μῡρίους δάρεικούς· ὁ δὲ λαβὼν τὸ χρῡσίον στράτευμα συνέλεξεν.
Cyrus gives Klearchos ten thousand darics, and he taking the money collected an army.
Xen. Anabasis 1.1.9


c. In πρὸ τοῦ before this, earlier; also in καὶ τόν (τήν, τούς) and τὸν (τὴν, τοὺς) δέ, when καὶ ὅς ἔφη, ἦ δʼ ὅς (560), and the like are changed to the infinitive in indirect quotation (577, 578):

Καὶ τὸν εἰπεῖν
and that he said

τὸν δὲ γελάσαι
and that he laughed

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