A School Grammar of Attic Greek

Thomas Dwight Goodell

SIMPLE SENTENCES/ Nouns: The Cases

The Dative

527. The At or In Dative (Locative) denotes

a. The Place where (in nouns of place), mostly poetic:

Δόμοις δέχεσθαι
to receive in their dwellings
Soph. Oedipus the King 818

 

ἔτι μέγας οὐρανῷ Zεύς.
Zeus is still great in heaven.
Soph. Electra 175

 

περιέρρεῖτο ὑπὸ τοῦ Μάσκᾱ κύκλῳ.
It was flowed around in a circle (was completely surrounded) by the Maskas.
Xen. Anabasis 1.5.4

 

In prose a few proper names are so used (cp. 228), especially names of demes: Mαραθῶνι at Marathon, Mελίτῃ in Melite. But generally a preposition precedes: ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾱͅ in the house. Also figuratively, of State or Condition:

Oὐχ ὕπνῳ γʼ εὕδοντα
not slumbering in sleep
Soph. Oedipus the King 65

 

φροντίδος πλάνοις
in the wanderings of anxious thought
Soph. Oedipus the King 67

 

ταῖς ψῦχαῖς ἐρρωμενέστεροι
stronger in their souls
Xen. Anabasis 3.1.42

 

Examples like the last shade naturally into the following.

 

b. The Particular, or the special sense, in which something is meant (Specifying Dative; sometimes possibly instrumental, but we more often use in):

Bοιωτιάζων τῇ φωνῇ
like a Boiotian in pronunciation
Xen. Anabasis 3.1.26

 

οἱ δοκοῦντες διαφέρειν εἴτε σοφίᾱͅ εἴτʼ ἀνδρείᾱͅ εἴτʼ ἄλλῃ ἡντινιοῦν ἀρετῇ
those who are thought superior whether in wisdom or in bravery or in any other virtue whatever
Plato Apology 35a

 

c. The Time when, in nouns of time with a specifying word, and in names of festivals:

Tῇ ὑστεραίᾱͅ
on the next day

μιᾷ νυκτί
in one night

δεκάτῳ ἔτει ξυνέβησαν.
They came to terms in the tenth year.
Thucydides 1.103.1

 

Παναθηναίοις
at the Panathenaia

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