A School Grammar of Attic Greek

Thomas Dwight Goodell

SIMPLE SENTENCES/ Undeveloped and Incomplete Sentences

491. Such are

a. Interjections:

Ὦ, ἆ, αἰαί, φεῦ, ἰού, ἰώ
oh, ah, alas, ha, ho, etc.

b. Exclamations without a verb:

This way! here!

μηδὲν ἄγᾱν.
Nothing too far!

ἰώ μοί μοι δύστηνος.
Ah me unhappy!

Ζεὺς σωτὴρ καὶ νῑ́κη.
Zeus the Savior and victory!
Xen. Anabasis 1.8.16


ὦ μιαρὸν ἦθος καὶ γυναικὸς ὕστερον.
O vile nature, subject to a woman!
Soph. Antigone 746


c. Titles and headings:

Κῡ́ρου Ἀνάβασις
The Expedition of Cyrus

Περὶ Ποιητικῆς
On Poetry

Ἑπτὰ ἐπὶ Θήβᾱς
Seven against Thebes

d. Some words or phrases, introducing a sentence that follows, or summing up something that precedes:

Σημεῖον δέ, or τεκμήριον δέ
and as evidence—

καὶ τὸ μέγιστον
and what is most important—

καὶ τοῦτο αὐτὸ τὸ τοῦ Ὁμήρου
and then as Homer says—
Plato Apology 34 d


So the frequent expression καὶ ταῦτα and that too, in which ταῦτα, like that, stands for the preceding expression, repeated in this abbreviated form, that some new point may be added with emphasis.

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