The Sicilian Cities

Fr. 43

      καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ τὰ μὲν ὅσσα καρήατι τῆμος ἔδωκα

           ξανθὰ σὺν εὐόδμοις ἁβρὰ λίπη στεφάνοις,  

      ἄπνοα πάντ' ἐγένοντο παρὰ χρέος, ὅσσα τ' ὀδόντων

15       ἔνδοθι νείαιράν τ' εἰς ἀχάριστον ἔδυ,

      καὶ τῶν οὐδὲν ἔμεινεν ἐς αὔριον· ὅσσα δ' ἀκουαῖς

           εἰσεθέμην, ἔτι μοι μοῦνα πάρεστι τάδε.

      .]ννε .[                                 ]. αλλ[.]με[

         ].[                                         ]. ε.ην[

20                                                       ]. . . .[  

                     maybe two verses missing

                                               ].[.]. ας

                                              ]. .σαντο θαλ.[

25                                             ]σπερίους [

                                            ].τε τέθμιον [. . . .].[

                                                 ]. . . .μεναις

                                ]πόλιν ἀλλα τε[. . . .]

                             ].ρου Κατάνην

30                     ]. . νεστε προέδ[ρ]ας

                             ]. . εην

                             ] ἄλλον ἀΰτει

                                    ]ς παρ' ὕδωρ

                               ]. . . ἔπλετο πασέ[ω

35                                 ]τι καλεῖν  

                     Θεοκλ]έες, ἔρχεο Νάξ[ον

                                  ].. δημοσίην

                                 ]ως Ἱέρωνα

                                 ]ε, Θάψε, βοή

40                     φθιν]οπωρίδες Ὧραι

          μείλια πεμφίγων <αἰ>ὲν ἄγουσι νέα.

      φήσω καὶ Καμάριναν ἵν' Ἵππαρις ἀγκύλος ἕρπει

                                                             ]λειν

                                                      ]γύλονη[

45                                                               ]ν

      οἶδα Γέλα ποταμοῦ κεφαλῇ ἔπι κείμενον ἄστυ

           Λίνδοθεν ἀρχαίῃ [σ]κιμπ[τόμενο]ν γενε[ῇ,

      Μινῴη[ν] καὶ Κρῆσ[σ]αν, ἵ[να ζείον]τα λοετ[ρά

           χεῦαν ἐ[π'] Εὐρώπης υἱέϊ Κ[ωκαλί]δες·

50  οἶδα Λεοντίνους [.]δεδρα[. . . . . . . . .]. . . . .[

           καὶ Μεγαρεῖς ἕτερ[οι] τοὺς ἀ[πέ]νασσαν ἐκεῖ  

      Νισαῖοι Μεγαρῆες, ἔχω δ' Εὔβοιαν ἐνισπε[ῖν

           φίλατο κα[] κεστ[ο]ῦ [δ]εσπότ[ι]ς ἣν Ἔρυκα· 

      τάων οὐδεμιῇ γὰ[ρ ὅτ]ις πο[τὲ] τεῖχος ἔδειμε

55       νωνυμνὶ νομίμην ἔρχ[ε]τ' ἐπ' εἰλαπίνην.’

      ὥς ἐφάμην· Κλειὼ δὲ τὸ [δ]εύτερον ἤρχ[ετο μ]ύθ[ου

           χεῖρ' ἐπ' ἀδελφειῆς ὦμον ἐρεισαμένη·

      'λαὸς ὁ μὲν Κύμης ὁ δὲ Χαλκίδος, ὃν Περιήρης

           ἤγαγε καὶ μεγάλου λῆμα Κραταιμένεος,

60  Τρινακρ[ί]ης ἐπέβησα[ν], ἐτείχισσαν δὲ πόληα

           ἅρπασον οἰωνῶν οὐχὶ φυλα[σσόμενοι]

      ἔχθιστον κτίστῃσιν, ἐρῳδιὸ[ς εἰ μὴ ἐφέ]ρπει·

           καὶ γὰρ ὁ βασκαίνει πύργον ἐ[γειρόμεν]ον

      γεωδαῖται καὶ σπάρτα διηνεκὲς εὖτε βάλωνται,

65       στείνεα καὶ λευρὰς ὄφρα τάμ[ωσιν ὁ]δούς.

      μέρμν[ο]υ μοι πτερύγεσσι. . . .[. . . . . .]ου τε νέοιο,

           εἴ κοτετιξ[.]. .ην λαὸν ἔποικον ἄ[γοις.

      ἀλλ' ὅτε δὴ μόσσυνας ἐπάλξεσι [καρτυνθέ]ντας  

           οἱ κτίσται δρέπανον θέντο πε[ρὶ Κρόνιο]ν, 

70  – κεῖθι γὰρ ᾧ τὰ γονῆος ἀπέθρισε μήδε' ἐκεῖνος

           κέκρυπται γύπῃ ζάγκλον ὑπὸ χθονίῃ,  –  

      .[ ]. ισαν ἀμφὶ πόληος· ὁ μὲν θε[. . . . . . . .]εσθαι

           . . . .ν, ὁ δ' ἀντίξουν εἶχε διχο[φροσύνην,

      ἀλλήλοις δ' ἐλύησαν· ἐς Ἀπόλ[λωνα δὲ βάν]τες

75       εἴρονθ' ὁπποτέρου κτίσμα λέγοιτ[ο νέον.  

      αὐτὰρ ὁ φῆ, μήτ' οὖν Περιήρεος ἄ[στυ]ρ[ον εἶ]ναι

           κεῖνο πολισσούχου μήτε Κραταιμέ[νεος.

      φῆ θεός· οἱ δ' ἀϊόντες ἀπέδραμον, ἐ[κ δ' ἔτι κεί]νου

           γαῖα τὸν οἰκιστὴν οὐκ ὀνομαστὶ κ[αλε]ῖ,

80  ὧδε δέ μιν καλέουσιν ἐπ' ἔντομα δημ[ι]οεργοί·

           ‘ἵ]λαος ἡμετέρην ὅστις ἔδειμε [πόλ]ιν

      ἐρ]χέσθω μετὰ δαῖτα, πάρεστι δὲ καὶ δύ' ἄγεσθαι

           κ]αὶ πλέας· οὐκ ὀλίγως α[]μα βοὸς κέχυται.’

 

Fr. 43 Harder (= 43.12-83 Pf., = 50.16-83 Mass.)
  1-83 P.Oxy. 2080 col. I-II [image], Trismegistos 59388
  8-19 P.Oxy 2210 fr. 16, 1-12 [image], Trismegistos 59389
  12-17 Stob. 2, 4, 9
  42 Σ A Pi. O. 5, 27a
  64 EtGen. AB s.v. γαιοδόται
  70-71 EtGen. AB s.v. ἔθρισεν
  74 A.D. Synt. 59, 12 sqq

This long fragment is known to belong to book II because of Stobaeus' citation of lines 12-17. Within the section Callimachus and the Muses discuss the foundations of, or other stories connected to, various Sicilian cities. The stories include the cities of Catana, Camarina, Gela, Minoa, Leontini, and Zancle. It bears similarlity to Apollonius (Argonautica 4.982-90) and seems to have been used by Vergil (Aeneid 3.688ff.). Callimachus' sources were likely to have been Thucydides (6.1-5) and the Sicilian historian Timaeus.

12–17. This sequence begins with Callimachus describing a banquet he attended, the physical pleasures of which quickly pass, while what was discussed remains in memory. It appears he is telling the Muses what he learned at the banquet; this is almost certainly an allusion to Plato's Symposium, during which ephemeral pleasures are put aside in favor of conversation. It would serve well as an introduction to fr. 178, where we find Callimachus, at a symposium, eschewing deep drinking in favor of conversation with his seat mate.

36. Theocles' role in the foundation of Sicilian Naxos, Leontini, and Catana is related by Thucydides (6.3). His account is immediately followed by Lamis' settlement of Thapsus (6.4). 

45–49. A story about the death of Minos, killed by the daughters of Cocalus because he was pursuing Daedalus.

56. Clio is mentioned in this fragment as "speaking [δ]εύτερον." The word may mean no more than that she continues to speak in this sequence, but it may also indicate that this is the second time that she has told a story (the first was that of Minos in book 1). Calliope and Clio also speak in the first two books of the Aetia, but too little of the poem survives to permit us to differentiate their speaking roles or establish a sequence.

59–72. The story of Zancle is told by Thucydides (6.4.5-6); Apollonius (Argonautica 4.982-90) disputes the claim that Cronus' sickle was buried in the town. He locates the marriage of Jason and Medea there. Zancle was said to have been a Sicilian word for sickle and the town so-named from the object.

60-65. The interest in bird omens is found also in Posidippus' epigrams labeled "oionoskopika" (epp. 21-35 A-B), and Callimachus himself wrote a prose treatise On Birds (frr. 414-428 Pf.).

 

Bibliography

Barigazzi, Adelmo. 1975. ‘Saghe sicule e beotiche nel simposio delle Muse di Callimaco.’ Prometheus 1:5-26.

D’Alessio, Giovan Battista. 2006. ‘Le Ὧραι e le πέμφιγες: fr. 43, 40-41 Pf. (= fr. 50 M.).’ In Callimaco: cent'anni di papiri. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi, Firenze, 9-10 giugno 2005 (Studi e testi di papirologia 8), edited by Guido Bastianini and Angelo Casanova, 101-17. Firenze: Istituto Papirologico G. Vitelli.

Ehlers, Wilhelm. (1908) 1933. "Die Gründung von Zankle in den Aitia des Kallimachos." Ph.D. diss., Universität Berlin. Berlin: Ohlau i. Schl.: H. Eschenhagen.

Hunter, Richard L. 1996. "Callimachus Swings (frr. 178 and 43 Pf.)," Ramus 25:18-26.

Stephens, Susan A. 2013. "Deregulating Poetry." In Performance and Culture in Plato's Laws, edited by A. Peponi, 371-91. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zetzel, James. 1981. “On the Opening of Callimachus Aetia II." Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 42:31-33.

Fr. 43

κάρη καρήατος, τό: head (= κεφαλή -ῆς, ἡ)

τῆμος: (adv.) then, at that time

ξανθός -ή -όν: yellow of various shades, golden, auburn; fair-haired

εὔοδμος -ον: sweet smelling, fragrant

ἁβρός -ά -όν: graceful, delicate, pretty, luxurious 

λίπος -εος, τό: animal fat, (vegetable) oil, oil applied to the head

στέφανος -ου, ὁ: wreath, crown

ἄπνοος -ον: lifeless, without breath

παρὰ χρέος = παραχρῆμα: (adv.) on the spot, forthwith, at the moment

ἔνδοθι: (adv.) within, at home

νείαιρα -ας, ἡ: abdomen, belly 15

ἀχάριστος -ον: ungracious, unpleasant, ungrateful

δύνω and δύω, fut. δύσω, impf. δῦνε, aor. 1 ἔδῡσα, aor. 2 ἔδῡν: plunge, go into, enter

αὔριον: tomorrow, the morrow

ἀκοή -ῆς, ἡ (Epic ἀκουή): hearing, a sound heard, the act of hearing, “ear”

εἰσ-τίθημι: place into

μοῦνα: Ep. and Ion. of μόνος, -η, -ον

      .                .                .                .

φθινοπωρίς -ίδος: (fem. adj.) autumnal (= φθινοπωρινός -ή -όν) 40

ὥρα -ας, ἡ: period of time, season

μείλια -ων, τά: soothing things; gifts

πέμφιξ -ιγος, ἡ: breath, blast, cloud; ghost

Καμάρινα -ας, ἡ: Camarina, a city in Sicily at the mouth of the river Hipparis

Ἵππαρις -ιδος, ἡ: Hipparis, a river in Sicily

ἀγκύλος -η -ον: crooked, curved, bending

ἕρπω: move slowly, creep, crawl, (of a river) take its course

Γέλα -ας, ἡ: Gela, a town and river on Sicily 46

ἄστυ -εος, τό: town

Λίνδοθεν: (adv.) from Lindosa city on the island of Rhodes 

σκίμπτομαι = σκήπτομαι: boast

γενεή -ῆς, ἡ: birth, lineage, race, descent

Μινῴη -ης, ἡ: Minoa, a.k.a Heraclea or Heraclea Minoa, a city on the coast of Sicily. Mythologically, the town was said to have been founded in honor of Minos of Crete; historically, it is believed to be founded by the city of Selinus.

Κρῆσσα -ης: (fem. adj.) Cretan

ζέω: boil, seethe

λουτρόν -οῦ, τό: water for bathing or washing

χέω aor. ἔχεα, Ep. aor. ἔχευα and χεῦα: pour, shed

Εὐρώπη -ης, ἡ: Europa, mother of Minos

Κωκαλίδες -ων, αἱ: daugthers of Cocalus, a Sicilian king

Λεοντῖνοι -ων, οἱ: men of Leontini, a city in Sicily 50

Μεγαρεύς -έως, ὁ: a citizen of Megara; a citizen of the colony Megara Hyblaea in Sicily

Νισαῖος -ου, ὁ: a citizen of Nisaea/Nisa, the harbor of ancient Megara

ἀποναίω, aor. ἀπένασσα: send out or away

Εὔβοια -ας, ἡ: Euboea, an island off the east coast of the Greek mainland

ἐνέπω, aor. ἔνισπον: to tell, relate, speak; call, name

κεστός -οῦ, ὁ: girdle or strap, esp. Aphrodite's charmed girdle

δεσπότις = δέσποινα -ας, ἡ: mistress

Ἔρυξ Ἔρυκος, ὁ/ἡ: Eryx, a settlement on Mt. Eryx in Sicily

τάων: Epic for τῶν

δέμω, aor. ἔδειμα: to build

νωνυμνί = ἀνωνύμως: (adv.) without naming, anonymously 55

νόμιμος -η -ον: customary, lawful, usual

εἰλαπίνη -ης, ἡ: a feast

Κλειώ -οῦς, ἡ: Clioone of the Muses

ὦμος -ου, ὁ: shoulder

ἐρείδω: cause to lean, prop

λαός -οῦ, ὁ: the people

Κύμη -ης, ἡ: Cumaea Greek city in Italy on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, home of the Sibyl

Χαλκίς -ίδος, ἡ: Chalcis, a city on the island of Euboea

λῆμα -ατος, τό: courage, resolution, will

Τρινακρία -ας, ἡ: an old name for Sicily 60

ἐπιβαίνω: to go upon, set foot on

τειχίζω τειχιῶ ἐτείχισ(σ)α: build a wall, fortify

πόληα: Epic for πόλιν 

ἅρπασος -ου, ὁ: α bird of prey

οἰωνός -οῦ, ὁ: a large bird, bird of omen or augury

κτίστης -ου, ὁ: founder, builder, restorer

ἐρῳδιός -οῦ, ὁ: the heron

ἐφέρπω: to creep upon, come on or over, follow

βασκαίνω βασκανῶ ἐβάσκηνα: to bewitch, put the evil eye on

πύργος -ου, ὁ: tower

ἐγείρω: to awaken, wake up, rouse; (of buildings) raise, erect

γεωδαίτης -ου, ὁ: land surveyor

σπάρτον -ου, ὁ: rope, measuring cord

διηνεκής -ές: continuous, unbroken, the whole length, from beginning to end

εὖτε: (adv. of time) when, at the time when; (adv. of comparison, = ἠΰτε) as, even as

στεῖνος -εος, τό: a narrow, confined space; τὰ στείνεα, alleyways 65

λευρός -ά -όν: smooth, level, polished

ὄφρα: that, in order that, to the end that

τάμνω: cut (Epic for τέμνω)

πτέρυξ -υγος, ἡ: wing

μέρμνος -ου, ὁ: hawk

νέομαι: to go

ἔποικος -οω: (adj.) colonizing, serving as a colonist

μόσσυν -υνος, ὁ: wooden tower, palisade

ἔπαλξις -εως, ἡ: a means of defense, battlements

καρτύνω: to strengthen (Epic for κρατύνω)

κτίστης -ου, ὁ: a founder, builder, restorer

δρέπανον -ου, τό: a scythe, curved sword, sickle

κεῖθι: at that place

γονεύς, gen. -έως or -ῆος, ὁ: father 70

ἀποθρίζω -θριῶ -θέρισα (poet. aor. -θρισα): to cut off

κρύπτω: hide, cover, conceal

γύπη -ης, ἡ: cave, recess

ζάγκλον -ου, τό: a reaping-hook, sickle

χθόνιος -η -ον: in, under, or beneath the earth

ἀντίξοος -ον: opposed, adverse

διχοφροσύνη -ης, ἡ: discord, faction, opposition

ἐλύησαν: “they quarreled,” hapax related to Dor./Ael. λύα -ας, ἡ: civil strife 75

ὁππότερος: which of two

κτίσμα -ατος, τό: colony, foundation

ἄστυρον -ου, τό: city (dim. of ἄστυ)

πολισσοῦχος -ον: protecting a city (epithet of a patron god, goddess, or founder) = πολιοῦχος

ἀίω: hear, perceive (pres. and impf. only)

ἀποτρέχω, fut. -θρέξομαι or -δραμοῦμαι, aor. -δραμον: to run off, depart

γαῖα γαίας, ἡ: a land, country

οἰκιστής -οῦ, ὁ: a colonizer, founder of a city

ὀνομαστί: (adv.) by name

ἔντομος -ον: cut in pieces; (neut. pl.) ἔντομα, victims offered to the dead, sacrifice 80

δημιοεργός -ου, ὁ: magistrate (Epic for δημιουργός)

ἵλαος -ον: propitious, gracious

δαίς δαιτός, ἡ: meal, banquet

πλέως, πλέα, πλέων: full of, filled (Goodell §95)

κέχυται: “has been shed” > χέω, pf. pass. 3 sing. indic.

Fr. 43

Indeed, all the luxurious amber unguents and sweet-smelling

wreaths I put on my head at that time

swiftly breathed no more, and of all that passed my teeth

and plunged into my ungrateful belly,15

of these too nothing remained into the morning; but only this

do I still possess, what I put into my ears.

      .              .              .                .                .

Theocles, come to Naxos                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 36

                   ... public

                   ... Hieron

                   ...Thapsus (?), the shout 

. . . the autumnal seasons . . .40

always bring new gifts to placate the ghosts.

I shall also speak of Camarina, where the curving Hipparis goes...

     .              .              .                .                .

I know the town lying at the head of the river Gela 46

boasting of its ancient descent from Lindos,

and Cretan Minoa, where the daughters of Cocalus

poured boiling bath water upon the son of Europa [sc. Minos].

I know Leontini. . .50

and the Megarians, the others, whom the Megarians

from Nisaea sent out, and I can speak about Euboea

and Eryx, which the mistress of the charmed girdle loved;

For, in none of these towns does the man who once

built the walls come to the customary feast anonymously." 55

Thus I spoke; and Clio, for the second time, began the story,

laying her hand upon her sister's shoulder,

"The people from Cumae, and others from Chalcis, whom 

Perieres and the pride of mighty Crataemenes led out,

set foot on Sicily, and fortified a city, 60

without guarding against the harpasos, the most hateful

of the ominous birds for those founding cities, unless a heron follows [it];

for it bewitches a rising tower when the surveyors lay out

the measuring cords in a continuous line,

in order to mark off narrow alleys and level roads. 65

May you go... with the wings of a young hawk...

if ever you lead out your people as colonists into a strange land. 

But when the founders built the wooden palisade

strengthened with battlements and placed around Cronos' sickle— 

for in that place the sickle with which he cut off his father's 70

genitals is hidden in a recess under the earth— 

...about the town; one of them...

but the other was opposed and of a different opinion

and they quarreled with each other; going to Apollo,75

they asked to which the new colony should belong.

But he said that the town would have neither Perieres

nor Crataemenes as its founder.

The god spoke; and having heard, they departed, and ever since then

the land does not call its founder by name,

but the magistrates call him to a sacrifice thus: 80

"May whoever built our city be gracious and

come to the feast, and he may also bring two

or more guests; not a little blood of an ox has been shed."

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Suggested Citation

Susan Stephens, Callimachus: Aetia. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2015. ISBN: 978-1-947822-07-8.http://dcc.dickinson.edu/callimachus-aetia/book-2/sicilian-cities