Vergil, Aeneid IV 54-89

Hīs dictīs impensō animum flammāvit amōre

spemque dedit dubiae mentī solvitque pudōrem.55

Prīncipiō dēlūbra adeunt pācemque per ārās

exquīrunt; mactant lēctās dē mōre bidentīs

lēgiferae Cererī Phoebōque patrīque Lyaeō,

Iūnōnī ante omnīs, cui vincla iugālia cūrae.

ipsa tenēns dextrā pateram pulcherrima Dīdō60

candentis vaccae media inter cornua fundit,

aut ante ōra deum pinguīs spatiātur ad ārās,

īnstauratque diem dōnīs, pecudumque reclūsīs

pectoribūs inhiāns spīrantia cōnsulit exta.

Heu, vātum ignārae mentēs! Quid vōta furentem,65

quid dēlūbra iuvant? Ēst mollīs flamma medullās

intereā et tacitum vīvit sub pectore vulnus.

Ūritur īnfēlīx Dīdō tōtāque vagātur

urbe furēns, quālis coniectā cerva sagittā,

quam procul incautam nemora inter Crēsia fīxit70

pāstor agēns tēlīs līquitque volātile ferrum

nescius: illa fugā silvās saltūsque peragrat

Dictaeōs; haeret laterī lētālis harundō.

Nunc media Aenēān sēcum per moenia dūcit

Sīdoniāsque ostentat opēs urbemque parātam,75

incipit effārī mediāque in vōce resistit;

nunc eadem lābente diē convīvia quaerit,

Īliacōsque iterum dēmēns audīre labōrēs

exposcit pendetque iterum nārrantis ab ōre.

Post ubi dīgressī, lūmenque obscūra vicissim80

lūna premit suādentque cadentia sīdera somnōs,

sōla domō maeret vacuā strātīsque relictīs

incubat. Illum absēns absentem auditque videtque,

aut gremiō Ascanium genitōris imāgine capta

dētinet, īnfandum sī fallere possit amōrem.85

Nōn coeptae adsurgunt turrēs, nōn arma iuventūs

exercet portūsve aut prōpugnācula bellō

tūta parant: pendent opera interrupta minaeque

mūrōrum ingentēs aequātaque māchina caelō.

CORE VOCABULARY

dictum, ī, n.: a thing said; word, 1.197; command, precept, injunction, 1.695; promise, 8.643. (dīcō)

impēnsus, a, um: ample, considerate, great, 4.54.

īnflammō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to set on fire; (fig.), to rouse, inflame, inspire, 4.54; infuriate, madden, 3.330.

dēlūbrum, ī, n.: the place for sacrificial cleansings; a shrine, temple, sanctuary, 2.225, et al. (dēluō, cleanse)

exquīrō, sīvī, sītus, 3, a.: to seek out, 3.96; discover, petition, pray for, implore, 4.57. (ex and quaerō)

māctō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to magnify by worship; to sacrifice, immolate, 2.202; slay, slaughter, 8.294, et al.

bidēns, entis: adj. (bis and dēns), having two teeth or two complete rows of teeth; subst., f. (sc. victima), an animal suitable for the altar; a sheep with two conspicuous teeth supplanting two of the milk-teeth; a sheep, 4.57.

lēgifer, era, erum: adj. (lēx and ferō), law-bringing, law-giving, 4.58.

Cerēs, eris, f.: daughter of Saturn and Ops, and goddess of agriculture; (meton.), corn, grain, 1.177; bread, 1.701; cake, loaf, 7.113; Cerēs labōrāta, bread, 8.181.

Phoebus, ī, m.: Phoebus or Apollo, 1.329, et al.

Lyaeus, ī, m.: the wine-god, Bacchus, 4.58.

Iūnō, ōnis, f.: Juno, the Sabine and Roman name for the wife and sister of Jupiter, daughter of Saturn, 1.4, et al.; Iūnō īnferna, the Juno of the lower world, Proserpine, 6.138.

iugālis, e: adj. (iugum), pertaining to the yoke; yoked together; matrimonial, nuptial, 4.16; subst., iugālēs, ium, m., yoked, or harnessed horses; a team, 7.280.

patera, ae, f.: a broad, saucer-shaped dish, used in making libations; a libation cup, patera, 1.729. (pateō)

Dīdō, ūs or ōnis, f.: Dido, daughter of Belus, king of Phoenicia, who fled from her brother Pygmalion to Africa, where she founded the city of Carthage, 1.299.

candeō, uī, 2, n.: to be of pure whiteness; p., candēns, entis, white, 4.61; at white heat; glowing, 3.573; 12.91.

vacca, ae, f.: cow, 6.251; heifer, 4.61.

pinguis, e: (adj.), fat, 1.215; well-fed, 1.635; fertile; reeking, 4.62; fat or rich with victims, 9.585.

spatior, ātus sum, 1, dep. n.: to walk about or to and fro; move about, 4.62. (spatium)

īnstaurō, āvī, ātus, 1, a.: to build; perform, celebrate, 3.62; revive, resolve anew, 2.451; celebrate anew, 4.63; renew, 2.669; repay, requite, 6.530.

pecus, udis, f.: one animal of a flock or herd; an animal, 1.743; a sheep, 3.120; victim for sacrifices, 4.63.

reclūdō, clūsī, clūsus, 3, a.: to unclose; to open, freq.; throw open, 3.92; reveal, disclose, 1.358; unsheathe, 4.646; cut or lay open, 4.63. (re- and claudō)

inhiō, āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.: to gape at or over; inspect, examine, 4.64; yawn; gape at, gaze at.

spīrō, āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.: to breathe, blow, 5.844; palpitate, 4.64; pant; breathe heavily, 7.510; heave, boil, 10.291; of odors, breathe forth, exhale, emit; w. acc., 1.404; p., spīrāns, antis, lifelike, breathing, 6.847.

exta, ōrum, n. pl.: the inner parts of animals, esp. the upper portions, as distinguished from the lower intestines; entrails, 4.64.

heu: (interj.), alas! ah! oh! 2.289, et al.

ignārus, a, um: (adj.), not knowing; freq.; unaware, ignorant, 11.154; often w. genit., ignorant of, 1.630; unsuspicious of, 2.106; unconscious, 9.345; not knowing the land; (pass.), unknown, a stranger, 10.706.

furō, uī, 3, n.: to be mad; freq., to rave, be frantic, rage, 1.491; to be furious, burn, storm (for war), 7.625; to be burning or mad with love, 1.659; to be frenzied, in a frenzy, 6.100; inspired, 2.345; distracted with grief, 3.313; plunge madly, 9.552; boil, 7.464; with cognate acc., give vent to one's fury, 12.680.

edō, ēdī, ēsus, 3, a.: to eat, 7.113; to eat, waste, consume, 4.66; pres., est, 4.66; (fig.), fret, vex, torment, consume, 12.801.

medulla, ae, f.: pl. medullae, ārum, the marrow, 4.66. (rel. to medius)

intereā: (adv.), amid these things; meanwhile, in the meantime, 1.418, et al.

ūrō, ussī, ūstus, 3, a.: to burn; burn up, 2.37; inflame with love, 4.68; trouble, disturb, torment, 1.662.

īnfēlīx, īcis: (adj.), unlucky; unfortunate, luckless, unhappy, 1.475, et al.; sad, miserable, 2.772; of ill omen, ill-starred, ill-boding, fatal, 2.245; unfruitful.

vagor, ātus sum, 1, dep. n. and a.: to wander about, 6.886; ride to and fro, career about, 5.560; to be rumored round, spread, 2.17. (vagus, wandering)

coniciō, iēcī, iectus, 3, a.: to throw together; pile up, 5.662; throw, cast, hurl, 2.545; turn, 12.483. (com- and iaciō)

cerva, ae, f.: a hind, 4.69; stag, 6.802. (cervus)

sagitta, ae, f.: an arrow, 1.187, et al.

incautus, a, um: (adj.), unguarded, heedless, 10.386; unsuspecting, 1.350.

Crēsius, a, um: (adj.), Cretan, 4.70.

fīgō, fīxī, fīxus, 3, a.: to fix or fasten; freq., the object in or on which, in the abl., 1.212; abl. w. prep., 6.636; acc. w. prep., 9.408; fasten up, suspend from, 3.287; hang up, 1.248; set up, establish, make, 6.622; transfix, pierce, 5.516; hurl (fix by hurling), 10.883; wound, 10.343; inscribe, 11.84.

pāstor, ōris, m.: one who feeds; herdsman, shepherd, 2.58. (pāscō)

linquō, līquī, 3, a.: to leave, 1.517, and freq.; desert, abandon, flee from, 3.213; pass by, 3.705; depart from, leave, 3.124; of death, yield up, 3.140; give up or over, desist from, 3.160.

volātilis, e: flying; winged, 4.71. (volō)

nescius, a, um: adj. (nesciō), not knowing, unaware, ignorant, 1.299; that knows not how, that can not.

saltus, ūs, m.: woodland pasture, glade, forest, 4.72, et al.

peragrō, āvī, ātus, 1, n. and a.: to go through fields or lands; to roam, travel; traverse, 1.384. (per and ager)

Dictaeus, a, um: adj. (Dictē), of Dicte, a mountain in Crete; Dictaean, Cretan, 3.171.

haereō, haesī, haesus, 2, n.: to stick; foll. by dat., or by abl. w. or without a prep.; hang, cling, adhere, cling to, 1.476, et al.; stop, stand fixed, 6.559; halt, 11.699; adhere to as companion, 10.780; stick to in the chase, 12.754; persist, 2.654; dwell, 4.4; pause, hesitate, 3.597; be fixed or decreed, 4.614.

lētālis, e: adj. (lētum), deadly, fatal, mortal, 4.73; ominous of death, 12.877.

arundō, inis, f.: a reed, arrow, 4.73.

Aenēās, ae, m.: 1. A Trojan chief, son of Venus and Anchises, and hero of the Aeneid, 1.92. 2. Aenēās Silvius, one of the Alban kings, 6.769.

Sīdōnius, a, um: (adj.), of Sidon; Sidonian; Phoenician, Tyrian, 1.678, et al.

ostentō, āvī, ātus, 1, intens. a.: to hold out to view; display, disclose, 3.703; point out, show, 6.678; make a show of, display, 5.521. (ostendō)

effor, fātus sum, 1, dep. a. and n.: to speak forth; speak, say, 6.560. (ex and for)

resistō, stitī, 3, n.: to remain standing; stand revealed, 1.588; oppose, withstand, resist, 2.335; interpose, 2.599; halt, stop, falter, 4.76.

lābor, lapsus sum, 3, dep. n.: to slide, glide down, or slip, freq.; fall down, 2.465; ebb, 11.628; pass away, 2.14; descend, 2.262; glide, sail, skim along, 8.91; flow, 3.281; fall, perish, 2.430; decline, 4.318; faint, 3.309.

Īliacus, a, um: (adj.), belonging to Ilium; Ilian, Trojan, 1.97, et al.

dēmēns, entis: (adj.), out of one’s mind, insane, foolish, mad, blind, 4.107; subst., fool, 11.399.

exposcō, poposcī, 3, a.: to ask importunately; to beg, entreat, seek, 3.261.

pendeō, pependī, 2, n.: to hang, foll. by abl. alone or w. prep., 2.546, et al.; 5.511; be suspended, 1.106; cling, 9.562; bend, stoop forward, 5.147; (meton.), linger, delay, 6.151; listen, hang upon, 4.79.

dīgredior, gressus sum, 3, dep. n.: to walk or go apart, aside, or away; depart, 3.410; separate, 4.80; come from, 2.718. (di- and gradior)

obscūrus, a, um: (adj.), dim, dark, dusky, obscure, 1.411; uncertain; of persons, unseen, 2.135; in the darkness, 6.268; pl., obscūra, ōrum, dim places; obscurity, uncertainty, 6.100.

vicissim: (adv.), in turn, 4.80; in one’s turn, on one’s part, 6.531. (vicis)

suādeō, suāsī, suāsus, 2, n. and a.: to advise, warn, urge, exhort, 1.357, et al.; invite, 2.9; impel, prompt, 11.254; compel, force, 10.367.

maereō, 2, n. and a.: to be sorrowful, sad; mourn, grieve, 1.197, et al. (cf. miser)

strātum, ī, n.: that which is spread out; a layer, cover; bed, couch, 3.513; pavement, 1.422. (sternō)

incubō, uī, itus, 1, n.: to lie, recline upon, w. abl. or dat., 4.83; rest upon, 1.89.

absum, āfuī or abfuī, āfutūrus or abfutūrus, abesse, irreg. n.: to be away; to be absent, 2.620; distant, 11.907; to be wanting, missing, 1.584; inf., āfore, or abfore, will be wanting, 8.147.

gremium, iī, n.: the lap, the bosom, 1.685, et al.; ante gremium suum, in front of or before one's self, 11.744.

Ascanius, iī, m.: Ascanius, son of Aeneas, and traditional founder of Alba Longa, 1.267.

genitor, ōris, m.: he who begets; father, sire, 1.155, et al. (gignō)

dētineō, uī, tentus, 2, a.: to hold from or back; hold, detain, 2.788. (dē and teneō)

īnfandus, a, um: (adj.), not to be uttered; unutterable, inexpressible, unspeakable, 4.85; cruel, 1.525; dreadful, horrible, 10.673; accursed, perfidious, 4.613; fatal, 2.132; neut., in exclamations, īnfandum! O shame, O woe unutterable! 1.251; pl., īnfanda, as(adv.), 8.489.

possum, potuī, posse, irreg. n.: to be able; can, 1.242, et al.; to avail, have influence, power, 4.382. (potis and sum)

adsurgō, surrēxī, surrēctus, 3, n.: to rise up; rise, 4.86; swell, fume, 10.95.

turris, is, f.: a tower, 2.445, et al.

iuventūs, ūtis, f.: youthfulness; the age of youth; collective, young people, the youth; warriors, 1.467. (iuvenis)

portus, ūs, m.: a port, harbor, haven, 1.159, et al; (fig.), 7.598.

prōpūgnāculum, ī, n.: a defense, rampart, fortification, bulwark, 4.87. (prōpūgnō, defend)

interrumpō, rūpī, ruptus, 3, a.: to break asunder; interrupt, discontinue, suspend, 4.88; of fire, extinguish, 9.239.

minae, ārum, f.: the projecting parts; points, pinnacles, battlements, 4.88; threats, menaces, 4.44; perils, 6.113; curses, 3.265. (cf. -mineō in immineō, etc.)

aequō, āvī, ātus, 1, a. and n.: to make equal in size, number, weight, etc., 1.193; 5.419; to equalize, divide equally, 1.508; make equal in length, 9.338; in height, raise to, 4.89; to equal, be equal to; to be as high as, on a level with; keep pace with, 6.263; return equally, requite, 6.474; lift, exalt, 11.125; p., aequātus, a, um, made equal or even; steady, 4.587. (aequus)

māchina, ae, f.: a machine, fabric, engine, 2.46, et al.

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Suggested Citation

Christopher Francese and Meghan Reedy, Vergil: Aeneid Selections. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Dickinson College Commentaries, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-947822-08-5. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/vergil-aeneid/vergil-aeneid-iv-54-89