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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar


640. Grammatical Terms

Anacoluthon: a change of construction in the same sentence, leaving the first part broken or unfinished.

Anastrophe: inversion of the usual order of words.

Apodosis: the conclusion of a conditional sentence (see Protasis).

Archaism: an adoption of old or obsolete forms.

Asyndeton: omission of conjunctions (§ 323. b).

Barbarism: adoption of foreign or unauthorized forms.

Brachylogy: brevity of expression.

Crasis: contraction of two vowels into one (§ 15. 3).

Ellipsis: omission of a word or words necessary to complete the sense.

Enallage: substitution of one word or form for another.

Epenthesis: insertion of a letter or syllable.

Hellenism: use of Greek forms or constructions.

Hendiadys ( ἓν διὰ δυοῖν ): the use of two nouns, with a conjunction, instead of a single modified noun.

Hypallage: interchange of constructions.

Hysteron proteron: a reversing of the natural order of ideas.

This term was applied to cases where the natural sequence of events is violated in language because the later event is of more importance than the earlier and so comes first to the mind. This was supposed to be an artificial embellishment in Greek, and so was imitated in Latin. It is still found in artless narrative; cf. “Bred and Born in a Brier Bush” (Uncle Remus).

Metathesis: transposition of letters in a word.

Paragoge: addition of a letter or letters to the end of a word.

Parenthesis: insertion of a phrase interrupting the construction.

Periphrasis: a roundabout way of expression ( circumlocution ).

Pleonasm: the use of needless words.

Polysyndeton: the use of an unnecessary number of copulative conjunctions.

Prolepsis: the use of a word in the clause preceding the one where it would naturally appear ( anticipation).

Protasis: a clause introduced by a conditional expression (if , when , whoever), leading to a conclusion called the Apodosis (§ 512).

Syncope: omission of a letter or syllable from the middle of a word.

Synesis ( cōnstrūctiō ad sēnsum): agreement of words according to the sense, and not the grammatical form (§ 280. a).

Tmesis: the separation of the two parts of a compound word by other words (cutting).

This term came from the earlier separation of prepositions (originally adverbs) from the verbs with which they were afterwards joined; so in per ecastor scītus puer, a very fine boy, egad! As this was supposed to be intentional, it was ignorantly imitated in Latin; as in cere- comminuit -brum (Ennius).

Zeugma: the use of a verb or an adjective with two different words, to only one of which it strictly applies ( yoking ).

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