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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

MISCELLANEOUS/ Reckoning of Time

631. Dates, according to the Roman Calendar, are reckoned as follows:—

a. The first day of the month was called Kalendae (Calends).

Note— Kalendae is derived from calāre, to call,—the Calends being the day on which the pontiffs publicly announced the New Moon in the Comitia Calāta . This they did, originally, from actual observation.

b. On the fifteenth day of March, May, July, and October, but the thirteenth of the other months, were the Īdūs (Ides), the day of Full Moon.

c. On the seventh day of March, May, July, and October, but the fifth of the other months, were the Nōnae (Nones or ninths).

d. From the three points thus determined, the days of the month were reckoned backwards as so many days before the Nones, the Ides, or the Calends. The point of departure was, by Roman custom, counted in the reckoning, the second day being three days before, etc. This gives the following rule for determining the date:—

If the given date be Calends, add two to the number of days in the month preceding,—if Nones or Ides, add one to that of the day on which they fall,—and from the number thus ascertained subtract the given date. Thus,—

    VIII. Kal. Feb. (31 + 2 - 8) = Jan. 25.

    IV. Nōn. Mār. (7 + 1 - 4) = Mar. 4.

    IV. Īd . Sept. (13 + 1 - 4) = Sept. 10.

Note— The name of the month appears as an adjective in agreement with Kalendae, Nōnae, Īdūs.

For peculiar constructions in dates, see § 424. g.

e. The days of the Roman month by the Julian Calendar, as thus ascertained, are given in the following table:—

JanuaryFebruaryMarchApril
1. KAL. IĀN.KAL. FEB.KAL. MĀRTIAEKAL. APRĪLĒS
2. IV. Nōn. Iān.IV. Nōn. Feb.VI. Nōn. Mārt.IV. Nōn. Apr.
3. III. Nōn. Iān.III. Nōn. Feb.V. Nōn. Mārt.III. Nōn. Apr.
4. prīd. Nōn. Iān.prīd. Nōn. Feb.IV. Nōn. Mārt.prīd. Nōn. Apr.
5. NŌN. IĀN.NŌN. FEB.III. Nōn. Mārt.NŌN. APRĪLĒS
6. VIII. Īd . Iān.VIII. Īd. Feb.prīd. Nōn. Mārt.VIII. Īd. Apr.
7. VII. Īd . Iān.VII. Īd. Feb.NŌN. MĀRTIAEVII. Īd. Apr.
8. VI. Īd . Iān.VI. Īd. Feb.VIII. Īd. Mārt.VI. Īd. Apr.
9. V. Īd . Iān.V. Īd. Feb.VII. Īd. Mārt.V. Īd. Apr.
10. IV. Īd . Iān.IV. Īd. Feb.VI. Īd. Mārt.IV. Īd. Apr.
11. III. Īd . Iān.III. Īd. Feb.V. Īd. Mārt.III. Īd. Apr.
12. prīd. Īd . Iān.prīd. Īd. Feb.IV. Īd. Mārt.prīd. Īd. Apr.
13. IDŪS IĀN.ĪDŪS FEB.III. Īd. Mārt.ĪDŪS APRĪLĒS.
14. XIX. Kal. Feb.XVI. Kal. Mārtiāsprīd. Īd. Mārt.XVIII. Kal. Māiās.
15. XVIII. Kal. Feb.XV. Kal. MārtiāsĪDŪS MĀRTIAEXVII. Kal. Māiās.
16. XVII. Kal. Feb.XIV. Kal. MārtiāsXVII. Kal. Aprīlīs.XVI. Kal. Māiās.
17. XVI. Kal. Feb.XIII. Kal. MārtiāsXVI. Kal. Aprīlīs.XV. Kal. Māiās.
18. XV. Kal. Feb.XII. Kal. MārtiāsXV. Kal. Aprīlīs.XIV. Kal. Māiās.
19. XIV. Kal. Feb.XI. Kal. MārtiāsXIV. Kal. Aprīlīs.XIII. Kal. Māiās.
20. XIII. Kal. Feb.X. Kal. MārtiāsXIII. Kal. Aprīlīs.XII. Kal. Māiās.
21. XII. Kal. Feb.IX. Kal. MārtiāsXII. Kal. Aprīlīs.XI. Kal. Māiās.
22. XI. Kal. Feb.VIII. Kal. MārtiāsXI. Kal. Aprīlīs.X. Kal. Māiās.
23. X. Kal. Feb.VII. Kal. MārtiāsX. Kal. Aprīlīs.IX. Kal. Māiās.
24. IX. Kal. Feb.VI. Kal. MārtiāsIX. Kal. Aprīlīs.VIII. Kal. Māiās.
25. VIII. Kal. Feb.V. Kal. MārtiāsVIII. Kal. Aprīlīs.VII. Kal. Māiās.
26. VII. Kal. Feb.IV. Kal. MārtiāsVII. Kal. Aprīlīs.VI. Kal. Māiās.
27. VI. Kal. Feb.III. Kal. MārtiāsVI. Kal. Aprīlīs.V. Kal. Māiās.
28. V. Kal. Feb.prīd. Kal. MārtiāsV. Kal. Aprīlīs.IV. Kal. Māiās.
29. IV. Kal. Feb.[prīd. Kal. Mārt. inIV. Kal. Aprīlīs.III. Kal. Māiās.
30. III. Kal. Feb.leap-year, the VI.III. Kal. Aprīlīs.prīd. Kal. Māiās.
31. prīd. Kal. Feb.Kal. (24th) beingprīd. Kal. Aprīlīs.(So June, Sept.,
(So Aug., Dec.)counted twice.](So May, July, Oct.)Nov.)
Note— Observe that a date before the Julian Reform (B.C. 46) is to be found not by the above table, but by taking the earlier reckoning of the number of days in the month.

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