A TEI Project

Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

FINAL SYLLABLES

604. The Quantity of Final Syllables is as follows:—

a. Monosyllables ending in a vowel are long: as, , , , .

  1. The attached particles -, -quĕ,-, -, -ptĕ, and - (rĕd-) are short; - (sēd-) and - are long. Thus, sēcēdit, sēditiō, exercitumquĕ rĕdūcit, dīmittō. But re- is often long in rēligiō (relligiō), rētulī (rettulī), rēpulī (reppulī).

b. Nouns and adjectives of one syllable are long: as, sōl, ōs (ōris), bōs, pār, vās (vāsis), vēr, vīs.

Exceptions. cŏr, fĕl, lăc, mĕl, ŏs (ossis), văs (vădis), vĭr, tŏt, quŏt.

c. Most monosyllabic Particles are short: as, ăn, ĭn, cĭs, nĕc. But crās, cūr, ēn, nōn, quīn, sīn —with adverbs in c: as, hīc, hūc, sīc —are long.

d. Final a in words declined by cases is short, except in the ablative sin gular of the first declension; in all other words final a is long. Thus, eă stellă (nominative), cum eā stellā (ablative); frūstrā, vocā (imperative), posteā, trīgintā.

Exceptions. ēiă, ită, quiă, pută (suppose); and, in late use, trīgintă etc.

e. Final e is short: as in nūbĕ, dūcitĕ, saepĕ.

Exceptions. —Final e is long—

  1. In adverbs formed from adjectives of the first and second declension, with others of like form: as, altē, longē, miserē, apertē, saepissimē. So ferē, fermē.

    But it is short in benĕ, malĕ; īnfernĕ, supernĕ.

  2. In nouns of the fifth declension: as, fidē (also famē), faciē, hodiē, quārē (quā rē).
  3. In Greek neuters plural of the second declension: as, cētē; and in some other Greek words: Phoebē, Circē, Andromachē, etc.
  4. In the imperative singular of the second conjugation: as, vidē.

    But sometimes cavĕ, habĕ, tacĕ, valĕ, vidĕ (cf. § 629. b. 1).

f. Final i is long: as in turrī, fīlī, audī.

Exceptions. —Final i is common in mihi, tibi, sibi, ibi, ubi; and short in nisĭ, quasĭ, sīcutĭ, cuĭ (when making two syllables), and in Greek vocatives: as, Alexĭ.

g. Final o is common: but long in datives and ablatives; also in nouns of the third declension. It is almost invariably long in verbs before the time of Ovid.

Exceptions. citŏ, modŏ (dummodŏ), immŏ, profectŏ, egŏ, duŏ, cedŏ (the imperative); so sometimes octŏ, īlicŏ, etc., particularly in later writers.

h. Final u is long. Final y is short

i. Final as, es, os, are long; final is, us, ys, are short: as, nefās, rūpēs, servōs (accusative), honōs; hostĭs, amīcŭs, Tethys.

Exceptions.

  1. as is short in Greek plural accusatives: as, lampadăs; and in anăs.
  2. es is short in the nominative of nouns of the third declension (lingual) having a short vowel in the stem 1: as, mīlĕs (-ĭtis), obsĕs (dis),—except abiēs, ariēs, pariēs, pēs; in the present of esse (ĕs, adĕs); in the preposition penĕs, and in the plural of Greek nouns: as, hērōĕs, lampadĕs.
  3. os is short in compŏs, impŏs; in the Greek nominative ending: as, barbitŏs; in the old nominative of the second declension: as, servŏs (later servus).
  4. is in plural cases is long: as in bonīs, nōbīs, vōbīs, omnīs (accusative plural).
  5. is is long in the verb forms fīs, sīs, vīs (with quīvīs etc.), velīs, mālīs, nōlīs, edīs; in the second person singular of the present indicative active in the fourth conjugation: as, audīs; and sometimes in the forms in -eris (future perfect indicative or perfect subjunctive).
  6. us is long in the genitive singular and nominative, accusative, and vocative plural of the fourth declension; and in nouns of the third declension having ū (long) in the stem: as, virtūs (-ūtis), incūs (dis). But pecŭs, -ŭdis.

j. Of other final syllables, those ending in a single consonant are short Thus, amăt, amātŭr; dōnĕc, făc, procŭl, iubăr.

Exceptions. hīc (also hĭc); allēc; the ablatives illōc, etc.; certain adverbs in -c: as, illīc, istūc; liēn, and some Greek nouns: as, āēr, aethēr, crātēr.

XML File

Notes
1
The quantity of the stem-vowel may be seen in the genitive singular.