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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

QUANTITY/ GENERAL RULES

603. The following are General Rules of Quantity (cf. §§ 9 - 11):

Quantity of Vowels

a. Vowels. A vowel before another vowel or h is short: as, vĭa, trăhō.

Exceptions.

  1. In the genitive form -ius , ī is long: as, utrīus, nūllīus. It is, however, sometimes short in verse (§ 113. c).
  2. In the genitive and dative singular of the fifth declension, e is long between two vowels: as, diēī; otherwise usually short, as in fidĕī, rĕī, spĕī.

    Note It was once long in these also: as, plēnus fidēī (Ennius, at the end of a hexameter). A is also long before ī in the old genitive of the first declension: as, aulāī.

  3. In the conjugation of fīō, i is long except when followed by er. Thus, fīō, fīēbam, fīam, but fĭerī, fĭerem; so also fĭt (§ 606. a. 3).
  4. In many Greek words the vowel in Latin represents a long vowel or diphthong, and retains its original long quantity: as, Trōes (Τρῶες), Thalīa (Θαλεῖα), hērōas (ἥρωας), āēr (ἄηρ).

    Note But many Greek words are more or less Latinized in this respect: as, Acadēmī˘a, chorē˘a, Malĕa, platĕa.

  5. In dīus, in ē˘heu usually, and sometimes in Dī˘āna and ō˘he, the first vowel is long.

b. Diphthongs. A Diphthong is long: as, foedus, cui,1 aula.

Exception. —The preposition prae in compounds is generally shortened before a vowel: as, praĕ-ustīs (Aen. 7.524), praĕ-eunte (id. 5.186).

Note— U following q, s, or g, does not make a diphthong with a following vowel (see § 5. N. 2). For â-iō, mâ-ior, pê-ior, etc., see § 11. d and N.

c. Contraction. A vowel formed by contraction (crasis) is long: as, nīl, from nihil; cōgō for †co-agō; mālō for mā-volō.

Note— Two vowels of different syllables may be run together without full contraction (synizēsis, § 642): as, deinde (for deinde), meōs (for meōs); and often two syllables are united by Synæresis (§ 642) without contraction: as when părĭĕtĭbŭs is pronounced paryĕtĭbus.

d. A vowel before ns, nf, gn, is long: as, īnstō, īnfāns, sīgnum.

Quantity of Syllables

e. A syllable is long if it contains a long vowel or a diphthong: as, cā-rus, ō-men, foe-dus.

f. Position. A syllable is long by position if its vowel, though short, is followed by two consonants or a double consonant: as, adventus, cortex.

But if the two consonants are a mute followed by l or r the syllable may be either long or short (common); as, alacris or alăcris; patris or pătris .

Vowels should be pronounced long or short in accordance with their natural quantity without regard to the length of the syllable by position.

Note 1— The rules of Position do not, in general, apply to final vowels before a word beginning with two consonants.

Note 2— A syllable is long if its vowel is followed by consonant i (except in bĭiugis, quadrĭiugis): see § 11. d.

Note 3— Compounds of iaciō, though written with one i, commonly retain the long vowel of the prepositions with which they are compounded, as if before a consonant, and, if the vowel of the preposition is short, the first syllable is long by position on the principle of § 11. e.

    obicis hostī (at the end of a hexameter, Aen. 4.549).

    inicit et saltū (at the beginning of a hexameter, Aen. 9.552).

    prōice tēla manū (at the beginning of a hexameter, Aen. 6.836).

Later poets sometimes shorten the preposition in trisyllabic forms, and prepositions ending in a vowel are sometimes contracted as if the verb began with a vowel.

    (1) cūr an|nōs ŏbĭ|cis (Claud. iv C. H. 264).

    (2) reīcĕ că|pellās (Ecl. 3.96, at end).

Note 4— The y or w sound resulting from synæresis (§ 642) has the effect of a consonant in making position: as, abietis (abyetis), fluviōrum (fluvyōrum). Conversely. when the semivowel becomes a vowel, position is lost: as, sĭlŭae, for silvae .

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Notes
1
Rarely dissyllabic cŭĭ (as Mart. 1.104.22 ).