A TEI Project

Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

ORDER OF WORDS/ Special Rules

599. The following are special rules of arrangement:—

a. The negative precedes the word it especially affects; but if it belongs to no one word in particular, it generally precedes the verb; if it is especially emphatic, it begins the sentence. (See example, 598. f. N.)

b. Itaque regularly comes first in its sentence or clause; enim, autem, vērō, quoque, never first, but usually second, sometimes third if the second word is emphatic; quidem never first, but after the emphatic word; igitur usually second; ... quidem include the emphatic word or words.

c. Inquam, inquit, are always used parenthetically, following one or more words. So often crēdō, opīnor, and in poetry sometimes precor.

d. (1) Prepositions (except tenus and versus) regularly precede their nouns; (2) but a monosyllabic preposition is often placed between a noun and its adjective or limiting genitive:—

    quem ad modum; quam ob rem; māgnō cum metū; omnibus cum cōpiīs; nūllā in rē; (cf. § 598. i).

e. In the arrangement of clauses, the Relative clause more often comes first in Latin, and usually contains the antecedent noun:—

    quōs āmīsimus cīvīs, eōs Mārtis vīs perculit (Marc. 17), those citizens whom we have lost, etc.

f. Personal or demonstrative pronouns tend to stand together in the sentence:—

    cum vōs mihi essētis in cōnsiliō (Rep. 3.28), when you attended me in counsel.

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