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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Substantive Clauses of Purpose

565. Volō and its compounds, the impersonals licet and oportet, and the imperatives dīc and fac often take the Subjunctive without ut:—

    volō amēs (Att. 2.10), I wish you to love.

    quam vellem mē invītāssēs (Fam. 10.28.1), how I wish you had invited me!

    māllem Cerberum metuerēs (Tusc. 1.12), I had rather you feared Cerberus.

    sint enim oportet (id. 1.12), for they must exist.

    querāmur licet (Caec. 41), we are allowed to complain.

    fac dīligās (Att. 3.13.2), do love! [A periphrasis for the imperative dīlige, love (cf. § 449. c).]

    dīc exeat, tell him to go out.

Note 1— In such cases there is no ellipsis of ut. The expressions are idiomatic remnants of an older construction in which the subjunctives were hortatory or optative and thus really independent of the verb of wishing etc. In the classical period, however, they were doubtless felt as subordinate. Compare the use of cavē and the subjunctive (without ) in Prohibitions (§ 450), which appears to follow the analogy of fac.

Note 2— Licet may take (1) the Subjunctive, usually without ut; (2) the simple Infinitive; (3) the Infinitive with Subject Accusative; (4) the Dative and the Infinitive (see § 455. 1). Thus, I may go is licet eam, licet īre, licet mē īre, or licet mihi īre.

For licet in concessive clauses, see § 527. b.

Note 3— Oportet may take (1) the Subjunctive without ut; (2) the simple Infinitive; (3) the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. Thus I must go is oportet eam, oportet īre, or oportet mē īre.

a. Verbs of commanding and the like often take the subjunctive without ut:—

    huic mandat Rēmōs adeat (B. G. 3.11), he orders him to visit the Remi.

    rogat fīnem faciat (id. 1.20), he asks him to cease.

    Mnēsthea vocat, classem aptent sociī (Aen. 4.289), he calls Mnestheus [and orders that] his comrades shall make ready the fleet.

Note— The subjunctive in this construction is the hortatory subjunctive used to express a command in Indirect Discourse (§ 588).

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