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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Substantive Clauses of Purpose

563. Substantive Clauses of Purpose with ut (negative ) are used as the object of verbs denoting an action directed toward the future.

Such are, verbs meaning to admonish , ask, bargain, command, decree, determine, permit, persuade, resolve, urge, and wish:— 1

    monet ut omnēs suspīciōnēs vītet (B. G. 1.20), he warns him to avoid all suspicion.

    hortātur eōs animō dēficiant (B. C. 1.19), he urges them not to lose heart.

    tē rogō atque ōrō ut eum iuvēs (Fam. 13.66), I beg and pray you to aid him.

    hīs utī conquīrerent imperāvit (B. G. 1.28), he ordered them to search.

    persuādet Casticō ut rēgnum occupāret (id. 1.3), he persuades Casticus to usurp royal power.

    suīs imperāvit quod omnīnō tēlum rêicerent (id. 1.46), he ordered his men not to throw back any weapon at all.

Note— With any verb of these classes the poets may use the Infinitive instead of an object clause:—

    hortāmur fārī (Aen. 2.74), we urge [him] to speak.

    nē quaere docērī (id. 6.614), seek not to be told.

    temptat praevertere (id. 1.721), she attempts to turn, etc.

For the Subjunctive without ut with verbs of commanding, see § 565. a.

a. Iubeō, order, and vetō, forbid, take the Infinitive with Subject Accusative:—

    Labiēnum iugum montis ascendere iubet (B. G. 1.21), he orders Labienus to ascend the ridge of the hill.

    līberōs ad sē addūcī iussit (id. 2.5), he ordered the children to be brought to him.

    ab opere lēgātōs discēdere vetuerat (id. 2.20), he had forbidden the lieutenants to leave the work.

    vetuēre [bona] reddī (Liv. 2.5), they forbade the return of the goods (that the goods be returned).

Note— Some other verbs of commanding etc. occasionally take the Infinitive:—

pontem imperant fierī (B. C. 1.61), they order a bridge to be built.

rēs monet cavēre (Sall. Cat. 52.3), the occasion warns us to be on our guard.

b.Verbs of wishing take either the Infinitive or the Subjunctive.

With volō (nōlō, mālō) and cupiō the Infinitive is commoner, and the subject of the infinitive is rarely expressed when it would be the same as that of the main verb.

With other verbs of wishing the Subjunctive is commoner when the subject changes, the Infinitive when it remains the same.

  1. Subject of dependent verb same as that of the verb of wishing:

    augur fierī voluī (Fam. 15.4.13), I wished to be made augur.

    cupiō vigiliam meam tibi trādere (id. 11.24), I am eager to hand over my watch to you.

    iūdicem mē esse, nōn doctōrem volō (Or. 117), I wish to be a judge, not a teacher.

    Caesaris mīlitem dīcī voluī (B. C. 2.32.13), I wished to be called a soldier of Cæsar.

    cupiō mē esse clēmentem (Cat. 1.4), I desire to be merciful. [But regularly, cupiō esse clēmēns (see § 457).]

    omnīs hominēs, quī sēsē student praestāre cēterīs animālibus (Sall. Cat. 1), all men who wish to excel other living creatures.

  2. Subject of dependent verb different from that of the verb of wishing:

    volō tē scīre (Fam. 9.24.1) , I wish you to know.

    vim volumus exstinguī (Sest. 92), we wish violence to be put down.

    tuā fruī virtūte cupimus (Brut. 331), we wish you to reap the fruits of your virtue.

    cupiō ut impetret (Pl. Capt. 102), I wish he may get it.

    numquam optābō ut audiātis (Cat. 2.15), I will never desire that you shall hear.

For volō and its compounds with the Subjunctive without ut, see § 565.

c. Verbs of permitting take either the Subjunctive or the Infinitive. Patior takes regularly the Infinitive with Subject Accusative; so often sinō:—

    permīsit ut faceret (De Or. 2.366), permitted him to make.

    concēdō tibi ut ea praetereās (Rosc. Am. 54), I allow you to pass by these matters.

    tabernācula statuī passus nōn est (B. C. 1.81), he did not allow tents to be pitched.

    vīnum importārī nōn sinunt (B. G. 4.2), they do not allow wine to be imported.

d. Verbs of determining, decreeing, resolving, bargaining, take either the Subjunctive or the Infinitive:—

    cōnstituerant ut L. Bēstia quererētur (Sall. Cat. 43), they had determined that Lucius Bestia should complain.

    proeliō supersedēre statuit (B. G. 2.8), he determined to refuse battle.

    dē bonīs rēgis quae reddī cēnsuerant (Liv. 2.5), about the king's goods, which they had decreed should be restored.

    dēcernit utī cōnsulēs dīlēctum habeant (Sall. Cat. 34), decrees that the consuls shall hold a levy.

    ēdictō quis iniussū pūgnāret (Liv. 5.19), having commanded that none should fight without orders.

Note 1— Different verbs of these classes with the same meaning vary in their construction (see the Lexicon). For verbs of bargaining etc. with the Gerundive, see § 500. 4.

Note 2— Verbs of decreeing and voting often take the Infinitive of the Second Periphrastic conjugation:—Rēgulus captīvōs reddendōs [esse] nōn cēnsuit (Off. 1.39), Regulus voted that the captives should not be returned. [He said, in giving his formal opinion: captīvī nōn reddendī sunt.]

e. Verbs of caution and effort take the Subjunctive with ut. But cōnor, try, commonly takes the Complementary Infinitive:—

    cūrā ut quam prīmum intellegam (Fam. 13.10.4), let me know as soon as possible(take care that I may understand).

    dant operam ut habeant (Sall. Cat. 41), they take pains to have (give their attention that, etc.).

    impellere utī Caesar nōminārētur (id. 49), to induce them to name Cæsar (that Cæsar should be named).

    cōnātus est Caesar reficere pontīs (B. C. 1.50), Cæsar tried to rebuild the bridges.

Note 1— Cōnor sī also occurs (as B. G. 1.8); cf. mīror sī etc., § 572. b. N.

Note 2— Ut nē occurs occasionally with verbs of caution and effort (cf. § 531 ):— cūrā et prōvidē ut nēquiddēsit (Att. 11.3.3), take care and see that he lacks nothing.

For the Subjunctive with quīn and quōminus with verbs of hindering etc., see § 558.

XML File

Notes
1
Such verbs or verbal phrases are id agō, ad id veniō, caveō (nē), cēnseō,cōgō, concēdō, cōnstituō, cūrō, dēcernō, ēdīcō, flāgitō, hortor, imperō, īnstō, mandō, metuō (nē). moneō, negōtium dō, operam dō, ōrō, persuādeō, petō, postulō, praecipiō, precor, prōnūntiō. quaerō, rogō, scīscō, timeō (nē), vereor (nē), videō, volō .