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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar


531. Final Clauses take the Subjunctive introduced by ut (utī), negative (ut nē), or by a Relative Pronoun or Adverb.—

  1. Pure Clauses of Purpose, with ut (utī) or (ut nē), express the purpose of the main verb in the form of a modifying clause:—

      ab arātrō abdūxērunt Cincinnātum, ut dictātor esset (Fin. 2.12), they brought Cincinnatus from the plough that he might be dictator.

      ut sint auxiliō suīs, subsistunt (B. C. 1.80), they halt in order to support (be an aid to) their own men.

      mīlitēs oppidum inrumperent, portās obstruit (id. 1.27), he barricaded the gates, in order that the soldiers might not break into the town.

      scālās parārī iubet, quam facultātem dīmittat (id. 1.28), he orders scalingladders to be got ready, in order not to let slip any opportunity.

      ut nē sit impūne (Mil. 31), that it be not with impunity.

    Note 1— Sometimes the conjunction has a correlative (ideō, idcircō, eō cōnsiliō, etc.) in the main clause (cf. § 56. a):—

    lēgum idcircō servī sumus, ut līberī sīmus (Clu 146), for this reason we are subject to the laws, that we may be free.

    cōpiās trānsdūxit eō cōnsiliō, ut castellum expūgnāret (cf. B. G. 2.9), he led the troops across with this design—to storm the fort.

    Note 2— Ut nōn sometimes occurs in clauses of purpose when nōn belongs to some particular word: as, ut plūra nōn dīcam (Manil. 44), to avoid unnecessary talk.


  2. Relative Clauses of Purpose are introduced by the relative pronoun quī or a relative adverb (ubi, unde, quō, etc.). The antecedent is expressed or implied in the main clause:—

      mittitur L. Dēcidius Saxa quī locī nātūram perspiciat (B. C. 1.66), Lucius Decidius Saxa is sent to examine the ground (who should examine, etc.).

      scrībēbat ōrātiōnēs quās aliī dīcerent (Brut. 206), he wrote speeches for other men to deliver.

      eō exstīnctō fore unde disceremnēminem (Cat. M. 12), that when he was dead there would be nobody from whom (whence) I could learn.

      huic nē ubi cōnsisteret quidem contrā tē locum relīquistī (Quinct. 73), you have left him no ground even to make a stand against you.

      habēbam quō cōnfugerem (Fam. 4.6.2), I had [a retreat] whither I might flee.

    Note— In this construction quī = ut is (etc.), ubi = ut ibi, and so on (§ 537. 2).

a. The ablative quō (= ut eō) is used as a conjunction in final clauses which contain a comparative:

comprimere eōrum audāciam, quō facilius cēterōrum animī frangerentur (Fam. 15.4.10), to repress their audacity, that the spirit of the others might be broken more easily (by which the more easily).

lībertāte ūsus est, quō impūnius dicāx esset (Quinct. 11), he took advantage of liberty, that he might bluster with more impunity.

Note— Occasionally quō introduces a final clause that does not contain a comparative: as,— L. Sulla exercitum, quō sibi fīdum faceret, lūxuriōsē habuerat (Sall. Cat. 11), Lucius Sulla had treated the army luxuriously, in order to make it devoted to him.

For quōminus (= ut eō minus) after verbs of hindering, see § 558. b.

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