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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Conditional Relative Clauses

519. A clause introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb may express a condition and take any of the constructions of Protasis 1 (§ 514):—

    quī enim vitiīs modum adpōnit, is partem suscipit vitiōrum (Tusc. 4.42), he who [only] sets a limit to faults, takes up the side of the faults. [= sī quis adpōnit. Present, nothing implied.]

    quī mentīrī solet, pēierāre cōnsuēvit (Rosc. Com. 46), whoever is in the habit of lying, is accustomed to swear falsely. [= sī quis solet. Present, nothing implied.]

    quicquid potuit, potuit ipsa per sē (Leg. Agr. 1.20), whatever power she had, she had by herself. [= sī quid potuit. Past, nothing implied.]

    quod quī faciet, nōn aegritūdine sōlum vacābit, sed, etc (Tusc. 4.38), and he who does (shall do) this, will be free not only, etc. [= sī quis faciet. Future, more vivid.]

    quisquis hūc vēnerit, vāpulābit (Pl. Am. 309), whoever comes here shall get a thrashing. [= sī quis vēnerit. Future, more vivid.]

    quō volēs, sequar (Clu. 71), whithersoever you wish (shall wish), I will follow. [= sī quō volēs. Future, more vivid.]

    philosophia, cui quī pāreat, omne tempus aetātis sine molestiā possit dēgere (Cat. M. 2), philosophy, which if any one should obey, he would be able to spend his whole life without vexation. [= sī quis pāreat. Future, less vivid.]

    quaecumque vōs causa hūc attulisset, laetārer (De Or. 2.15), I should be glad whatever cause had brought you here (i.e. if any other, as well as the one which did). [= ... attulisset. Contrary to fact.]

The relative in this construction is always indefinite in meaning, and very often in form.

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As in the Greek ὂς ἂν, ὅταν , etc.; and in statutes in English, where the phrases if any person shall and whoever shall are used indifferently.