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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive

507. The Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used (1) to express manner,1 means, cause, etc.; (2) after Comparatives; and (3) after the propositions ab, , ex, in, and (rarely) prō:—

(1) multa pollicendō persuādet (Iug. 46), he persuades by large promises.

Latīnē loquendō cuivīs pār (Brut. 128), equal to any man in speaking Latin.

hīs ipsīs legendīs (Cat. M. 21), by reading these very things.

obscūram atque humilem conciendō ad sē multitūdinem (Liv. 1.8), calling to them a mean and obscure multitude.

(2) nūllum officium referendā grātiā magis necessārium est (Off. 1.47), no duty is more important than repaying favors.

(3) in rē gerendā versārī (Cat. M. 17), to be employed in conducting affairs.

Note 1— The Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive is also very rarely used with verbs and adjectives: as, —nec continuandō abstitit magistrātū (Liv. 9.34), he did not desist from continuing his magistracy.

Note 2— The ablative of the gerund rarely takes a direct object in classic prose.

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Notes
1
In this use the ablative of the gerund is, in later writers nearly, and in mediæval writers entirely, equivalent to a present participle: as,— cum ūnā diērum FLENDŌ sēdisset , quīdam mīles generōsus iūxtā eam EQUITANDŌ vēnit (Gesta Romanorum , 66 [58]), as one day she sat weeping , a certain knight came riding by (compare § 507 , fourth example). Hence come the Italian and Spanish forms of the present participle (as mandando , esperando ), the true participial form becoming an adjective in those languages.