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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Gerundive (Future passive Participle)

500. The Gerundive when used as a Participle or an Adjective is always passive, denoting necessity, obligation, or propriety.

In this use of the Gerundive the following points are to be observed:—

  1. The gerundive is sometimes used, like the present and perfect participles, in simple agreement with a noun:—

      fortem et cōnservandum virum (Mil. 104), a brave man, and worthy to be preserved.

      gravis iniūria facta est et nōn ferenda (Flacc. 84), a grave and intolerable wrong has been done.

  2. The most frequent use of the gerundive is with the forms of esse in the Second (or passive) Periphrastic Conjugation (see § 196):—

      nōn agitanda rēs erit (Verr. 5.179), will not the thing have to be agitated?

  3. The neuter gerundive of both transitive and intransitive verbs may be used impersonally in the second periphrastic conjugation.

    With verbs that take the dative or ablative, an object may be expressed in the appropriate case; with transitive verbs, an object in the accusative is sometimes found:—

      temporī serviendum est (Fam. 9.7.2), one must obey the time.

      lēgibus pārendum est, the laws must be obeyed.

      ūtendum exercitātiōnibus modicīs (Cat. M. 36), we must use moderate exercise

      agitandumst vigiliās (Pl. Trin. 869), I have got to stand guard.

      via quam nōbīs ingrediendum sit (Cat. M. 6), the way we have to enter.

  4. After verbs signifying to give, deliver, agree for, have, receive, undertake, demand,1 a gerundive in agreement with the object is used to express purpose:—

      redēmptor quī columnam illam condūxerat faciendam (Div. 2.47), the contractor who had undertaken to make that column. [The regular construction with this class of verbs.]

      aedem Castoris habuit tuendam (Verr. 2.1.150), he had the temple of Castor to take care of.

      nāvīs atque onera adservanda cūrābat (id. 5.146), he took care that the ships and cargoes should be kept.

XML File

Such verbs are accipiō , adnōtō , attribuō , condūcō , cūrō , dēnōtō , dēposcō , , dīvidō , dōnō , ēdīcō , ēdoceō , ferō , habeō , locō , mandō , obiciō , permittō , petō , pōnō , praebeō , prōpōnō , relinquō , rogō , suscipiō , trādō , voveō .