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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Uses of Participles

497. A noun and a passive participle are often so united that the participle and not the noun contains the main idea:—1

    ante conditam condendamve urbem (Liv. Pref.), before the city was built or building.

    illī lībertātem imminūtam cīvium Rōmānōrum nōn tulērunt; vōs ēreptam vītam neglegētis (Manil. 11), they did not endure the infringement of the citizens' liberty; will you disregard the destruction of their lives?

    post nātōs hominēs (Brut. 224), since the creation of man.

    iam ā conditā urbe (Phil. 3.9), even from the founding of the city.

a. The perfect participle with a noun in agreement, or in the neuter as an abstract noun, is used in the ablative with opus , need (cf. § 411. a):—

    opus factō est viāticō (Pl. Trin. 887), there is need of laying in provision.

    mātūrātō opus est (Liv. 8.13.17), there is need of haste.

b. The perfect participle with habeō (rarely with other verbs) has almost the same meaning as a perfect active, but denotes the continued effect of the action of the verb:—2

    fidem quam habent spectātam iam et diū cōgnitam (Caecil. 11), my fidelity, which they have proved and long known.

    cohortīs in aciē LXXX cōnstitūtās habēbat (B. C. 3.89), he had eighty cohorts stationed in line of battle.

    nefāriōs ducēs captōs iam et comprehēnsōs tenētis (Cat. 3.16), you have now captured the infamous leaders and hold them in custody.

c. A verb of effecting or the like may be used in combination with the perfect participle of a transitive verb to express the action of that verb more forcibly:—

    praefectōs suōs multī missōs fēcērunt (Verr. 3.134), many discharged their officers (made dismissed).

    hīc trānsāctum reddet omne (Pl. Capt. 345), he will get it all done (restore it finished).

    adēmptum tibi iam faxō omnem metum (Ter. Haut. 341), I will relieve you of all fear (make it taken away).

    illam tibi incēnsam dabō (Ter. Ph. 974), I will make her angry with you.

Note— Similarly volō (with its compounds) and cupiō, with a perfect participle without esse (cf. § 486. d).

d. After verbs denoting an action of the senses the present participle in agreement with the object is nearly equivalent to the infinitive of indirect discourse (§ 580), but expresses the action more vividly:

    ut eum nēmō umquam in equō sedentem vīderit (Verr. 5.27), so that no one ever saw him sitting on a horse. [Cf. Tusc. 3.31.]

Note— The same construction is used after faciō, indūcō, and the like, with the name of an author as subject: as, Xenophōn facit Sōcratem disputantem (N. D. 1.31), Xenophon represents Socrates disputing.

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Notes
1
Compare the participle in indirect discourse in Greek (Goodwin's Greek Grammar, § 1588 ); and the English “'T was at the royal feast for Persia won” (Dryden), i.e. for the conquest of Persia.
2
The perfect with have , in modern languages of Latin stock, has grown out of this use of habeō .