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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Distinctions in Tense of Participles

493. The Latin has no Perfect Participle in the active voice. The deficiency is supplied—

  1. In deponents by the perfect passive form with its regular active meaning:—

      nam singulās [nāvīs] nostrī cōnsectātī expūgnāvērunt (B. G. 3.15), for our men, having overtaken them one by one, captured them by boarding.

    Note— The perfect participle of several deponent verbs may be either active or passive in meaning (§ 190. b).

  3. In other verbs, either by the perfect passive participle in the ablative absolute (§ 420. N.) or by a temporal clause (especially with cum or postquam):—

      itaque convocātīs centuriōnibus mīlitēs certiōrēs facit (B. G. 3.5), and so, having called the centurions together, he informs the soldiers (the centurions having been called together).

      cum vēnisset animadvertit collem (id. 7.44), having come (when he had come), he noticed a hill.

      postquam id animum advertit cōpiās suās Caesar in proximum collem subdūcit (B. G. 1.24), having observed this (after he had observed this) Cæsar led his troops to the nearest hill.

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