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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Distinctions of Tense in Participles

491. The Perfect Participle of a few deponent verbs is used nearly in the sense of a Present.

Such are, regularly, ratus, solitus, veritus; commonly, arbitrātus, fīsus, ausus, secūtus, and occasionally others, especially in later writers:—

    rem incrēdibilem ratī (Sall. Cat. 48), thinking the thing incredible.

    īnsidiās veritus (B. G. 2.11), fearing an ambuscade.

    cohortātus mīlitēs docuit (B. C. 3.80), encouraging the men, he showed.

    īrātus dīxistī (Mur. 62), you spoke in a passion.

    ad pūgnam congressī (Liv. 4.10), meeting in fight.

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