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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

IMPERATIVE MOOD

449. The Future Imperative is used in commands, etc., where there is a distinct reference to future time:—

  1. In connection with some adverb or other expression that indicates at what time in the future the action of the imperative shall take place. So especially with a future, a future perfect indicative, or (in poetry and early Latin) with a present imperative:—

      crās petitō, dabitur (Pl. Merc. 769), ask to-morrow [and] it shall be given.

      cum valētūdinī cōnsulueris, tum cōnsulitō nāvigātiōnī (Fam. 16.4.3), when you have attended to your health, then look to your sailing.

      Phyllida mitte mihī, meus est nātālis, Iollā; cum faciam vitulā prō frūgibus, ipse venītō (Ecl. 3.76), send Phyllis to me, it is my birthday, Iollas; when I [shall] sacrifice a heifer for the harvest, come yourself.

      dīc quibus in terrīs, etc., et Phyllida sōlus habētō (id. 3.107), tell in what lands, etc., and have Phyllis for yourself.

  2. In general directions serving for all time, as Precepts, Statutes, and Wills:—

      is iūris cīvīlis cūstōs estō (Legg. 3.8), let him (the prætor) be the guardian of civil right.

      Boreā flante, nē arātō, sēmen nē iacitō (Plin. H. N. 18.334), when the north wind blows, plough not nor sow your seed.

a. The verbs sciō, meminī, and habeō (in the sense of consider) regularly use the Future Imperative instead of the Present:—

    fīliolō mē auctum scītō (Att. 1.2), learn that I am blessed with a little boy.

    sīc habētō, mī Tirō (Fam. 16.4.4), so understand it, my good Tiro.

    dē pallā mementō, amābō (Pl. Asin. 939), remember, dear, about the gown.

b. The Future Indicative is sometimes used for the imperative; and quīn (why not?) with the Present Indicative may have the force of a command:—

    sī quid acciderit novī, faciēs ut sciam (Fam. 14.8), you will let me know if anything new happens.

    quīn accipis (Ter. Haut. 832), here, take it (why not take it?).

c. Instead of the simple Imperative, cūrā ut, fac (fac ut), or velim, followed by the subjunctive (§ 565), is often used, especially in colloquial language:—

    cūrā ut Rōmae sīs(Att. 1.2), take care to be at Rome.

    fac ut valētūdinem cūrēs (Fam. 14.17), see that you take care of your health

    domī adsītis facite (Ter. Eun. 506), be at home, do.

    eum mihi velim mittās (Att. 8.11), I wish you would send it to me.

For commands in Indirect Discourse, see § 588.

For the Imperative with the force of a Conditional Clause, see § 521. b.

 

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