>Chapter 428 — Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar

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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Relations of Space

428. Special uses of place from which, to which, and where are the following:—

a. With names of towns and small islands ab is often used to denote from the vicinity of, and ad to denote towards, to the neighborhood of:

ut ā Mutinā discēderet (Phil. 14.4), that he should retire from Modena (which he was besieging).

erat ā Gergoviā dēspectus in castra (B. G. 7.45), there was from about Gergovia a view into the camp.

ad Alesiam proficīscuntur (id. 7.76), they set out for Alesia.

ad Alesiam perveniunt (id. 7.79), they arrive at Alesia (i.e. in the neighborhood of the town).

D. Laelius cum classe ad Brundisium vēnit (B. C. 3.100), Decimus Lœlius came to Brundisium with a fleet (arriving in the harbor).

b. The general words urbs, oppidum, īnsula require a preposition to express the place from which, to which, or where:

ab (ex) urbe, from the city.in urbe, in the city.
ad urbem, to the city.Rōmae in urbe, in the city of Rome.
in urbem, into the city. Rōmā ex urbe, from the city of Rome.
ad urbem Rōmam (Rōmam ad urbem), to the city of Rome.

c. With the name of a country, ad denotes to the borders; in with the accusative, into the country itself. Similarly ab denotes away from the outside; ex, out of the interior.

Thus ad Ītaliam pervēnit would mean he came to the frontier, regardless of the destination; in Ītaliam, he went to Italy, i.e. to a place within it, to Rome, for instance.

So ab Ītaliā profectus est would mean he came away from the frontier, regardless of the original starting-point; ex Ītaliā, he came from Italy, from within, as from Rome, for instance.

d. With all names of places at, meaning near (not in), is expressed by ad or apud with the accusative.

pūgna ad Cannās, the fight at Cannae.
conchās ad Câiētam legunt (De Or. 2.22), at Caieta (along the shore).
ad (apud) īnferōs, in the world below (near, or among, those below).
ad forīs, at the doors.ad iānuam, at the door.

Note 1— In the neighborhood of may be expressed by circā with the accusative; among, by apud with the accusative:—

apud Graecōs, among the Greeks.apud mē, at my house.
apud Solēnsīs (Leg. 2.41), at Soli.circā Capuam, round about Capua.

Note 2— In citing an author, apud is regularly used; in citing a particular work, in. Thus, apud Xenophōntem, in Xenophon; but, in Xenophōntis Oeconomicō, in Xenophon's Œconomicus

e. Large islands, and all places when thought of as a territory and not as a locality , are treated like names of countries:—

in Siciliā, in Sicily.

in Ithacā leporēs illātī moriuntur (Plin. H. N. 8.226), in Ithaca hares, when carried there, die. [Ulysses lived at Ithaca would require Ithacae.]

f. The Ablative without a preposition is used to denote the place from which in certain idiomatic expressions:—

cessisset patriā (Mil. 68), he would have left his country.

patriā pellere, to drive out of the country.

manū mittere, to emancipate (let go from the hand).

g. The poets and later writers often omit the preposition with the place from which or to which when it would be required in classical prose:—

mānīs Acheronte remissōs (Aen. 5.99), the spirits returned from Acheron.

Scythiā profectī (Q. C. 4.12.11), setting out from Scythia.

Ītaliam ... Lāvīniaque vēnit lītora (Aen. 1.2), he came to Italy and the Lavinian shores.

terram Hesperiam veniēs (id. 2.781), you shall come to the Hesperian land.

Aegyptum proficīscitur (Tac. Ann. 2.59), he sets out for Egypt.

h. In poetry the place to which is often expressed by the Dative, occasionally also in later prose:—

it clāmor caelō (Aen. 5.451), a shout goes up to the sky.

facilis dēscēnsus Avernō (id. 6.126), easy is the descent to Avernus.

diadēma capitī repōnere iussit (Val. Max. 5.1.9), he ordered him to put back the diadem on his head.

i. The preposition is not used with the supine in -um (§ 509) and in the following old phrases:—

exsequiās īre, to go to the funeral.īnfitiās īre, to resort to denial.
pessum īre, to go to ruin.pessum dare, to ruin (cf. perdō ).
vēnum dare, to sell (give to sale). [Hence vēndere.]
vēnum īre, to be sold (go to sale). [Hence vēnīre.]
forās (used as adverb), out: as, forās ēgredī, to go out of doors.
suppetiās advenīre, to come to one's assistance.

j. When two or more names of place are used with a verb of motion, each must be under its own construction:—

quadriduō quō haec gesta sunt rēs ad Chrȳsogonum in castra L. Sullae Volā terrās dēfertur (Rosc. Am. 20), within four days after this was done, the matter was reported TO Chrysogonus IN Sulla's camp AT Volaterrœ.

Note— The accusative with or without a preposition is often used in Latin when motion to a place is implied but not expressed in English (see k, N.).

k. Domum denoting the place to which, and the locative domī, may be modified by a possessive pronoun or a genitive:—

domum rēgis (Deiot. 17), to the king's house. [But also in M. Laecae domum (Cat. 1.8), to Marcus Lœca's house.]

domī meae, at my house; domī Caesaris, at Cæsar's house.

domī suae vel aliēnae, at his own or another's house.

Note— At times when thus modified, and regularly when otherwise modified, in domum or in domō is used:—

in domum prīvātam conveniunt (Tac. H. 4.55), they come to gether in a private house.

in Mārcī Crassī castissimā domō (Cael. 9), in the chaste home of Marcus Crassus. [Cf. ex Anniānā Milōnis domō, § 302. e.]

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