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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Relations of Place

427. With names of towns and small islands, and with domus and rūs, the Relations of Place are expressed as follows:—

  1. The place from which, by the Ablative without a preposition.
  2. The place to which, by the Accusative without a preposition.
  3. The place where, by the Locative.1

Examples are:—

  1. Place from which:—

    Rōmā profectus, having set out from Rome; Rōmā abesse, to be absent from Rome.

    domō abīre, to leave home; rūre reversus, having returned from the country.

  2. Place to which:—

    cum Rōmam sextō diē Mutinā vēnisset (Fam. 11.6.1), when he had come to Rome from Modena in five days (on the sixth day).

    Dēlō Rhodum nāvigāre, to sail from Delos to Rhodes.

    rūs ībō, I shall go into the country.

    domum iit, he went home.2 [So, suās domōs abīre, to go to their homes.]

  3. Place where (or at which):—

Rōmae, at Rome (Rōma).Athēnīs, at Athens (Athēnae).
Rhodī, at Rhodes (Rhodus).Lānuvī, at Lanuvium.
Samī, at Samos.Cyprī, at Cyprus.
Tīburī or Tībure, at Tibur.Cūribus, at Cures.
Philippīs, at Philippi.Capreīs, at Capri (Capreae).
domī (rarely domuī), at home.rūrī, in the country.

a. The Locative Case is also preserved in the following nouns, which are used (like names of towns) without a preposition:—

bellīmīlitiae (in contrast to domī), abroad, in military service.

humī, on the ground.vesperī (-e), in the evening.
forīs, out of doors. animī (see § 358).
herī (-e), yesterday.temperī, betimes.

Cf. īnfēlīcī arborī; (Liv. 1.26), on the ill-omened (barren) tree; terrā marīque, by land and sea.

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Notes
1
The Locative has in the singular of the first and second declensions the same form as the Genitive, in the plural and in the third declension the same form as the Dative or Ablative. (See p. 34, footnote.)
2
The English home in this construction is, like domum , an old accusative of the end of motion.