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\Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Relations of Place

426. Relations of Place 1 are expressed as follows:—

  1. The place from which, by the Ablative with ab, , or ex.
  2. The place to which (or end of motion), by the Accusative with ad or in.
  3. The place where, by the Ablative with in (Locative Ablative).

Examples are:—

  1. Place from which:—

      ā septentriōne, from the north.

      cum ā vōbīs discesserō (Cat. M. 79), when I leave you.

      dē prōvinciā dēcēdere, to come away from one's province.

      dē monte, down from the mountain.

      negōtiātor ex Āfricā (Verr. 2.1.14), a merchant from Africa.

      ex Britanniā obsidēs mīsērunt (B. G. 4.38), they sent hostages from Britain.

      Mōsa prōfluit ex monte Vosegō (id. 4.10), the Meuse (flows from) rises in the Vosges mountains.

  2. Place to which (end of motion):—

      nocte ad Nerviōs pervēnērunt (B. G. 2.17), they came by night to the Nervii.

      adībam ad istum fundum (Caec. 82), I was going to that estate.

      in Āfricam nāvigāvit, he sailed to Africa; in Ītaliam profectus, gone to Italy.

      lēgātum in Treverōs mittit (B. G. 3.11), he sends his lieutenant into the [country of the] Treveri.

  3. Place where:—

    in hāc urbe vītam dēgit, he passed his life in this city.

    sī in Galliā remanērent (B. G. 4.8), if they remained in Gaul.

    dum haec in Venetīs geruntur (id. 3.17), while this was going on among the Veneti.

    oppidum in īnsulā positum (id. 7.58), a town situated on an island.

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Notes
1
Originally all these relations were expressed by the cases alone. The accusative, in one of its oldest functions, denoted the end of motion; the ablative, in its proper meaning of separation, denoted the place from which , and, in its locative function, the place where. The prepositions, originally adverbs, were afterwards added to define more exactly the direction of motion (as in to usward, toward us ), and by long association became indispensable except as indicated below.