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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

CONJUNCTIONS

323. Copulative and Disjunctive Conjunctions connect similar constructions, and are regularly followed by the same case or mood that precedes them:—

scrīptum senātuī et populō; (Cat. 3.10), written to the senate and people.

ut eās [partīs] sānārēs et cōnfīrmārēs (Mil. 68), that you might cure and strengthen those parts.

neque meā prūdentiā neque hūmānīs cōnsiliīs frētus (Cat. 2.29), relying neither on my own foresight nor on human wisdom.

a. Conjunctions of Comparison (as ut, quam, tamquam, quasi ) also commonly connect similar constructions:—

hīs igitur quam physicīs potius crēdendum exīstimās (Div. 2.37), do you think these are more to be trusted than the natural philosophers?

hominem callidiōrem vīdī nēminem quam Phormiōnem (Ter. Ph. 591), a shrewder man I never saw than Phormio (cf. § 407).

ut nōn omne vīnum sīc nōn omnis nātūra vetustāte coacēscit (Cat. M. 65), as every wine does not sour with age, so [does] not every nature.

in mē quasi in tyrannum (Phil. 14.15), against me as against a tyrant.

b. Two or more coördinate words, phrases, or sentences are often put together without the use of conjunctions ( Asyndeton , § 601 . c ):

omnēs dī , hominēs, all gods and men.

summī, mediī, īnfimī, the highest, the middle class, and the lowest.

iūra, lēgēs, agrōs, lībertātem nōbīs relīquērunt (B. G. 7.77), they have left us our rights, our laws, our fields, our liberty.

c.1. Where there are more than two coördinate words etc., a conjunction, if used, is ordinarily used with all (or all except the first):—

    aut aere aliēnō aut māgnitūdine tribūtōrum aut iniūriā potentiōrum (B. G. 6.13), by debt, excessive taxation, or oppression on the part of the powerful.

    at sunt mōrōsī et anxiī et īrācundī et difficilēs senēs (Cat. M. 65), but (you say) old men are capricious, solicitous , choleric , and fussy.

2. But words are often so divided into groups that the members of the groups omit the conjunction (or express it), while the groups themselves express the conjunction (or omit it):—

    propudium illud et portentum, L. Antōnius īnsīgne odium omnium hominum (Phil. 14.8), that wretch and monster, Lucius Antonius, the abomination of all men.

    utrumque ēgit gravite, auctōritāte et offēnsiōne animī nōn acerbā; (Lael. 77), he acted in both cases with dignity, without loss of authority and with no bitterness of feeling.

3. The enclitic -que is sometimes used with the last member of a series, even when there is no grouping apparent:—

    vōce voltū mōtūque (Brut. 110), by voice, expression, and gesture.

    cūram cōnsilium vigilantiamque (Phil. 7.20), care wisdom, and vigilance.

    quōrum auctōritātem dīgnitātem voluntātemque dēfenderās (Fam. 1.7.2), whose dignity, honor , and wishes you had defended.

d. Two adjectives belonging to the same noun are regularly connected by a conjunction:—

multae et gravēs causae, many weighty reasons.

vir līber aç fortis (Rep. 2.34), a free and brave man.

e. Often the same conjunction is repeated in two coördinate clauses:

et ... et (-que ... -que), both ... and.

aut ... aut, either ... or.

vel ... vel, either ... or. [Examples in § 324 . e.]

sīve (seu) ... sīve (seu), whether ... or. [Examples in § 324 . f.]

f. Many adverbs are similarly used in pairs, as conjunctions, partly or wholly losing their adverbial force:—

nunc ... nunc, tum ... tum, iam ... iam, now ... now.

modo ... modo, now ... now.

simul ... simul, at the same time ... at the same time.

quā ... quā, now ... now, both ... and, alike [this] and [that].

modo ait modo negat (Ter. Eun. 714), now he says yes, now no.

simul grātiās agit, simul grātulātur (Q. C. 6.7.15), he thanks him and at the same time congratulates him.

ērumpunt saepe vitia amīcōrum tum in ipsōs amīcōs tum in aliēnōs (Lael. 76), the faults of friends sometimes break out, now against their friends themselves , now against strangers.

quā marīs quā fēminās (Pl. Mil. 1113), both males and females.

g. Certain relative and demonstrative adverbs are used correlatively as conjunctions:—

ut (rel.) ... ita, sīc (dem.), as (while) ... so (yet).

tam (dem.) ... quam (rel.), so (as) ... as.

cum (rel.) ... tum (dem.), while ... so also; not only ... but also.

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