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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Adverbs

322. The following adverbs require special notice:—

a. Etiam (et iam), also, even, is stronger than quoque, also, and usually precedes the emphatic word, while quoque follows it:—

nōn verbīs sōlum sed etiam vī; (Verr. 2.64), not only by words, but also by force.

hōc quoque maleficium (Rosc. Am. 117), this crime too.

b. Nunc1 means definitely now, in the immediate present, and is rarely used of the immediate past.

Iam means now, already, at length, presently, and includes a reference to previous time through which the state of things described has been or will be reached. It may be used of any time. With negatives iam means (no) longer.

Tum, then, is correlative to cum, when, and may be used of any time. Tunc, then , at that time, is a strengthened form of tum (†tum-ce, cf. nunc):—

ut iam anteā dīxī, as I have already said before.

sī iam satis aetātis atque rōboris habēret (Rosc. Am. 149), if he had attained a suitable age and strength (lit. if he now had, as he will have by and by).

nōn est iam lēnitātī locus, there is no longer room for mercy.

quod iam erat īnstitūtum, which had come to be a practice (had now been established).

nunc quidem dēlēta est, tunc flōrēbat’ (Lael. 13), now ('t is true) she [Greece] is ruined, then she was in her glory.

tum cum rēgnābat, at the time when he reigned.

c. Certō means certainly , certē (usually) at least, at any rate:

certō sciō, I know for a certainty; ego certē, I at least.

d. Prīmum means first (first in order, or for the first time), and implies a series of events or acts. Prīmō means at first, as opposed to afterwards, giving prominence merely to the difference of time:—

hōc prīmum sentiō, this I hold in the first place.

aedīs prīmō ruere rēbāmur, at first we thought the house was falling.

Note— In enumerations, prīmum (or prīmō) is often followed by deinde, secondly, in the next place, or by tum, then, or by both in succession. Deinde may be several times repeated (secondly, thirdly, etc.). The series is often closed by dēnique or postrēmō, lastly, finally. Thus, prīmum dē genere bellī, deinde dē māgnitūdine, tum dē imperātōre dēligendō (Manil. 6), first of the kind of war, next of its magnitude, then of the choice of a commander.

e. Quidem, indeed, gives emphasis, and often has a concessive meaning, especially when followed by sed, autem, etc.:—

hōc quidem vidēre licet (Lael. 54), THIS surely one may see. [Emphatic.]

[sēcūritās] speciē quidem blanda, sed reāpse multīs locīs repudianda (id. 47), (tranquillity) in appearance, it is true, attractive, but in reality to be rejected for many reasons. [Concessive.]

f. ... quidem means not even or not ... either. The emphatic word or words must stand between and quidem :—

sed nē Iugurtha quidem quiētus erat (Iug. 51), but Jugurtha was not quiet either.

ego autem nē īrāscī possum quidem iīs quōs valdē amō; (Att. 2.19.1), but I cannot even get angry with those whom I love very much.

Note— Equidem has the same senses as quidem, but is in Cicero confined to the first person. Thus, —equidem adprobābō (Fam. 2.3.2), I for my part shall approve.

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Notes
1
For † num-ce ; cf. tunc (for † tum-ce ).