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Allen and Greenough/ New Latin Grammar

Adverbs

321. Adverbs are used to modify Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs.

a. A Demonstrative or Relative adverb is often equivalent to the corresponding Pronoun with a preposition (see § 308 . g):—

[= in ea] impōnit vāsa (Iug. 75), upon them (thither, thereon, on the beasts) he puts the camp-utensils.

eō mīlitēs impōnere (B. G. 1.42), to put soldiers upon them (the horses).

apud eōs quō [= ad quōs] sē contulit (Verr. 4.38), among those to whom (whither) he resorted.

quī eum necāsset unde [= quō] ipse nātus esset (Rosc. Am. 71), one who should have killed his own father (him whence he had his birth).

ō condiciōnēs miserās administrandārum prōvinciārum ubi [= in quibus] sevēritās perīculōsa est (Flacc. 87), O! wretched terms of managing the provinces, where strictness is dangerous.

b. The participles dictum and factum , when used as nouns, are regularly modified by adverbs rather than by adjectives; so occasionally other perfect participles:—

praeclārē facta (Nep. Timoth. 1), glorious deeds (things gloriously done).

multa facētē dicta (Off. 1.104), many witty sayings.

c. A noun is sometimes used as an adjective, and may then be modified by an adverb:—

victor exercitus, the victorious army.

admodum puer, quite a boy (young).

magis vir, more of a man (more manly).

populum lātē rēgem (Aen. 1.21), a people ruling far and wide.

Note— Very rarely adverbs are used with nouns which have no adjective force bat which contain a verbal idea:—

hinc abitiō ; (Plaut. Rud. 503), a going away from here.

quid cōgitem dē obviarr itiōne (Att. 13.50), what I think about going to meet (him). [Perhaps felt as a compound.]

d. A few adverbs appear to be used like adjectives. Such are obviam , palam , sometimes contrā, and occasionally others:—

fit obviam Clōdiō; (Mil. 29), he falls in with (becomes in the way of) Clodius. [Cf. the adjective obvius: as, sī ille obvius eī futūrus nōn erat (id. 47), if he was not likely to fall in with him.]

haec commemorō quae sunt palam (Pison. 11), I mention these facts, which are well-known.

alia probābilia, contrā alia dīcimus (Off. 2.7), we call some things probable, others the opposite (not probable). [In this use, contrā contradicts a previous adjective, and so in a manner repeats it.]

erī semper lēnitās (Ter. And. 175), my master's constant (always) gentleness. [An imitation of a Greek construction.]

Note— In some cases one can hardly say whether the adverb is treated as an adjective modifying the noun, or the noun modified is treated as an adjective (as in c above).

For propius, prīdiē, palam, and other adverbs used as prepositions, see § 432.

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